Suggestive linkage of familial primary cutaneous amyloidosis to a locus on chromosome 1q23.Br J Dermatol. 2005 Jan; 152(1):29-36.BJ
There is a high incidence of primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) in South America, South-east Asia and Taiwan. To date, the aetiology of PCA remains unknown, but it is believed to be multifactorial. Although most cases are sporadic, some patients have a family history. Familial aggregation and different susceptibility to PCA among ethnic groups suggest that genetic factors may play an important role in its pathogenesis. However, no genetic loci for familial PCA (FPCA) have been identified so far.
In order to identify the susceptibility gene of FPCA, we took a candidate gene approach and performed linkage analysis on chromosome 1q21.3-24.2, including the 1q23.2 region where the gene encoding serum amyloid P component (APCS) is located.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Nine FPCA families including 29 individuals affected with PCA were recruited for this linkage study. Initially, 11 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning the region from 1q21.3 to 1q24.2 were genotyped and revealed a suggestive linkage region. This region was further fine-mapped with seven additional markers. We also re-sequenced the 2.5-kb genomic region of the APCS gene in 29 affected and 42 control individuals. Two-point and multipoint linkage analyses were performed using the LINKAGE program. Nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis and reconstruction of haplotypes were performed with the GENEHUNTER program.
Both two-point and multipoint linkage analysis for all 11 markers generated negative or small positive total lod scores for all nine families. However, when we considered only three families, a maximum two-point total lod score of 2.09 was obtained for the marker D1S2844 at theta = 0.01. A plateau of multipoint total lod score between D1S2768 and D1S2878 with a maximum of 2.48 at the marker D1S2844 was observed. A maximum NPL score of 3.11 (P = 0.008) was also obtained for the marker D1S2878. However, re-sequencing of the APCS gene identified no functional mutation.
Both parametric and nonparametric linkage evidence suggested that a possible susceptibility locus for a subset of FPCA might exist on chromosome 1q23. This is the first report demonstrating suggestive evidence of linkage of FPCA to a locus in this candidate region. No functional sequence variations of the APCS gene were found to be associated with this disease among the study families. Our data imply the existence of at least one additional locus responsible for FPCA in these families, confirming genetic heterogeneity of this skin disorder.