Dual promoter structure of ZFP106: regulation by myogenin and nuclear respiratory factor-1.Gene. 2005 Jan 03; 344:143-59.GENE
The WD40 repeats containing zinc finger protein 106 (ZFP106) is a conserved mammalian protein of unknown function. However, its cDNA shares an extended region of identity with the scr homology domain 3 binding protein 3 (Sh3bp3) cDNA encoding a protein implicated in the insulin signaling pathway. Asking, whether Zfp106 and Sh3bp3 are products of the same gene, we characterized the structures and transcriptional regulation of Zfp106 and its human homologue, ZFP106. A TATA-less, CpG island associated promoter (P1), was mapped by 5'-RACE to a region 19 kb upstream of the ZFP106 translation start site. P1 is active throughout development and at low levels in all adult tissues examined. A conserved cis-element in the proximal P1 region showed specific binding to nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1). Mutagenesis of this site and transfection of a dominant-negative NRF-1 both revealed the crucial role of NRF-1 in activation of P1. The broad tissue expression of P1 was in contrast to the high level of ZFP106 mRNA observed in striated muscle. This prompted additional 5'-RACE experiments that established a second, TATA box-containing promoter (P2) upstream of the third coding exon. P1 and P2 transcripts encode proteins with distinct N-terminal sequences, with Sh3bp3 corresponding to a rare, alternatively spliced P2 transcript. P2 initiated transcripts are specifically expressed in striated muscle and their level is strongly upregulated during myogenic, but not adipogenic differentiation. By deletion analysis, the region between nucleotides -296 to +96 was sufficient for robust P2 responsiveness to myogenic differentiation. This response is mediated by the additive effect of binding of myogenin to three critical E boxes within this region. In addition, transcriptional enhancer factor-1 family factors contribute to both basal and myogenesis induced P2 activity. In situ hybridization of mouse embryos confirmed predominant expression of Zfp106 in tissues with high developmental expression of either NRF-1 (brown fat and developing brain) or myogenin (striated muscle). Our results suggest distinct roles of tissue-specific ZFP106 isoforms in growth related metabolism and provide the foundation for further studies into the regulation and function of ZFP106.