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Diet and blood pressure in South Africa: Intake of foods containing sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in three ethnic groups.
Nutrition. 2005 Jan; 21(1):39-50.N

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We investigated whether habitual intakes of sodium (Na), potassium, magnesium, and calcium differ across South African ethnic groups, assessed the proportion of Na intake, which is discretionary, and identified which food sources were the major contributors to Na intake.

METHODS

This was a cross-sectional study of 325 black, white, and mixed ancestry hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Three repeated 24-h urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary Na, and three corresponding 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained fieldworkers. Blood pressure and weight were measured at each visit. Secondary analyses were performed on existing dietary databases obtained from four regional surveys undertaken in South African adults.

RESULTS

Mean urinary Na excretion values equated to daily salt (NaCl) intakes of 7.8, 8.5, and 9.5 g in black, mixed ancestry, and white subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). Between 33% and 46% of total Na intake was discretionary, and, of the non-discretionary sources, bread was the single greatest contributor to Na intake in all groups. Ethnic differences in calcium intake were evident, with black subjects having particularly low intakes. Urban versus rural differences existed with respect to sources of dietary Na, with greater than 70% of total non-discretionary Na being provided by bread and cereals in rural black South Africans compared with 49% to 54% in urban dwellers.

CONCLUSION

White South Africans have higher habitual intakes of Na, but also higher calcium intakes, than their black and mixed ancestry counterparts. All ethnic groups had Na intakes in excess of 6 g/d of salt, whereas potassium intakes in all groups were below the recommended level of 90 mM/d. Dietary differences may contribute to ethnically related differences in blood pressure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa. w.scott@iafrica.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15661477

Citation

Charlton, Karen E., et al. "Diet and Blood Pressure in South Africa: Intake of Foods Containing Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Three Ethnic Groups." Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), vol. 21, no. 1, 2005, pp. 39-50.
Charlton KE, Steyn K, Levitt NS, et al. Diet and blood pressure in South Africa: Intake of foods containing sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in three ethnic groups. Nutrition. 2005;21(1):39-50.
Charlton, K. E., Steyn, K., Levitt, N. S., Zulu, J. V., Jonathan, D., Veldman, F. J., & Nel, J. H. (2005). Diet and blood pressure in South Africa: Intake of foods containing sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in three ethnic groups. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 21(1), 39-50.
Charlton KE, et al. Diet and Blood Pressure in South Africa: Intake of Foods Containing Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Three Ethnic Groups. Nutrition. 2005;21(1):39-50. PubMed PMID: 15661477.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diet and blood pressure in South Africa: Intake of foods containing sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in three ethnic groups. AU - Charlton,Karen E, AU - Steyn,Krisela, AU - Levitt,Naomi S, AU - Zulu,Jabulisiwe V, AU - Jonathan,Deborah, AU - Veldman,Frederick J, AU - Nel,Johanna H, PY - 2004/04/06/received PY - 2004/07/02/accepted PY - 2005/1/22/pubmed PY - 2005/6/10/medline PY - 2005/1/22/entrez SP - 39 EP - 50 JF - Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) JO - Nutrition VL - 21 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether habitual intakes of sodium (Na), potassium, magnesium, and calcium differ across South African ethnic groups, assessed the proportion of Na intake, which is discretionary, and identified which food sources were the major contributors to Na intake. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 325 black, white, and mixed ancestry hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Three repeated 24-h urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary Na, and three corresponding 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained fieldworkers. Blood pressure and weight were measured at each visit. Secondary analyses were performed on existing dietary databases obtained from four regional surveys undertaken in South African adults. RESULTS: Mean urinary Na excretion values equated to daily salt (NaCl) intakes of 7.8, 8.5, and 9.5 g in black, mixed ancestry, and white subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). Between 33% and 46% of total Na intake was discretionary, and, of the non-discretionary sources, bread was the single greatest contributor to Na intake in all groups. Ethnic differences in calcium intake were evident, with black subjects having particularly low intakes. Urban versus rural differences existed with respect to sources of dietary Na, with greater than 70% of total non-discretionary Na being provided by bread and cereals in rural black South Africans compared with 49% to 54% in urban dwellers. CONCLUSION: White South Africans have higher habitual intakes of Na, but also higher calcium intakes, than their black and mixed ancestry counterparts. All ethnic groups had Na intakes in excess of 6 g/d of salt, whereas potassium intakes in all groups were below the recommended level of 90 mM/d. Dietary differences may contribute to ethnically related differences in blood pressure. SN - 0899-9007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15661477/Diet_and_blood_pressure_in_South_Africa:_Intake_of_foods_containing_sodium_potassium_calcium_and_magnesium_in_three_ethnic_groups_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899-9007(04)00219-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -