Simultaneous determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine enantiomers in urine by simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction and diastereomeric derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Feb 25; 816(1-2):131-43.JC
A simple, rapid, reliable, and economic analytical scheme starting with in situ liquid-liquid extraction and asymmetric (or diastereomeric) chemical derivatization (ChD) followed by gas chromatography (GC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (MS) is described for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine which could have resulted from the administration of various forms of questioned amphetamines or amphetamines-generating drugs. By using L-N-trifluoroacetyl-1-prolyl chloride (L-TPC) as chiral derivatizing agent, resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 were achieved for the separation of AP and MA enantiomeric pairs, respectively, on an ordinary HP-5MS capillary column. The GC-MS quantitation was carried out in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using m/z 237 and 251 as the quantifier ions for the respective diastereomeric pairs of AP-L-TPC and MA-L-TPC. The calibration curves plotted for the two pairs of analytes stretch with good linearity down to 45 ng/mL, and the limits of detection and quantitation determined were as low as 40 and 45 ng/mL, respectively. Also, a comparative study using 10 real-case urine specimens previously screened as positive for MA administration showed mostly tolerable biases between the two sums (of concentration) of D- and L-MA obtained via an asymmetric L-TPC-ChD approach and via an ordinary pentafluoropropionylation (PFPA-ChD) approach, respectively, as well as between the two sums of D- and L-AP obtained thereupon, thus validating the proposed analytical scheme as a promising forensic protocol for the detailed analysis of enantiomeric amphetamines in urine.