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Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and women.

Abstract

Hyperinsulinemia may explain excess colorectal cancer among individuals who are overweight or inactive. Recent studies have observed elevated colorectal cancer risk among individuals with elevated insulin levels 2 hours after oral glucose challenge or with elevated plasma C-peptide levels. The effect of consuming a high glycemic diet on colorectal risk, however, remains uncertain. Two prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, contributed up to 20 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 1,809 incident colorectal cancers were available for analyses. Dietary glycemic load (GL) was calculated as a function of glycemic index (postprandial blood glucose response as compared with a reference food), carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of individual foods reported on food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for potential confounders. Intakes of dietary carbohydrate, GL, overall glycemic index, sucrose, and fructose were not associated with colorectal cancer risk in women. A small increase in risk was observed in men with high dietary GL (multivariate relative risk, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.79; highest versus lowest quintile), sucrose or fructose (multivariate relative risk, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.78; highest versus lowest quintile of fructose, P = 0.008). Associations were slightly stronger among men with elevated body mass index (> or =25 kg/m(2)). Results among women were similar after stratifying by body mass index or physical activity. High intakes of GL, fructose, and sucrose were related to an elevated colorectal cancer risk among men. For women, however, these factors did not seem to increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Harvard School of Public Health, Kresge 920, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. dmichaud@hsph.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15668487

Citation

Michaud, Dominique S., et al. "Dietary Glycemic Load, Carbohydrate, Sugar, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men and Women." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2005, pp. 138-47.
Michaud DS, Fuchs CS, Liu S, et al. Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):138-47.
Michaud, D. S., Fuchs, C. S., Liu, S., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A., & Giovannucci, E. (2005). Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 14(1), pp. 138-47.
Michaud DS, et al. Dietary Glycemic Load, Carbohydrate, Sugar, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men and Women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):138-47. PubMed PMID: 15668487.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. AU - Michaud,Dominique S, AU - Fuchs,Charles S, AU - Liu,Simin, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Colditz,Graham A, AU - Giovannucci,Edward, PY - 2005/1/26/pubmed PY - 2005/4/21/medline PY - 2005/1/26/entrez SP - 138 EP - 47 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 14 IS - 1 N2 - Hyperinsulinemia may explain excess colorectal cancer among individuals who are overweight or inactive. Recent studies have observed elevated colorectal cancer risk among individuals with elevated insulin levels 2 hours after oral glucose challenge or with elevated plasma C-peptide levels. The effect of consuming a high glycemic diet on colorectal risk, however, remains uncertain. Two prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, contributed up to 20 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 1,809 incident colorectal cancers were available for analyses. Dietary glycemic load (GL) was calculated as a function of glycemic index (postprandial blood glucose response as compared with a reference food), carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of individual foods reported on food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for potential confounders. Intakes of dietary carbohydrate, GL, overall glycemic index, sucrose, and fructose were not associated with colorectal cancer risk in women. A small increase in risk was observed in men with high dietary GL (multivariate relative risk, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.79; highest versus lowest quintile), sucrose or fructose (multivariate relative risk, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.78; highest versus lowest quintile of fructose, P = 0.008). Associations were slightly stronger among men with elevated body mass index (> or =25 kg/m(2)). Results among women were similar after stratifying by body mass index or physical activity. High intakes of GL, fructose, and sucrose were related to an elevated colorectal cancer risk among men. For women, however, these factors did not seem to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15668487/Dietary_glycemic_load_carbohydrate_sugar_and_colorectal_cancer_risk_in_men_and_women_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15668487 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -