Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and their relationship with cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Feb; 62(2):242-9.CE
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
High levels of some adipocytokines have been reported in patients with chronic renal failure, but little information is available on adipocytokine concentrations in uraemic patients under different modalities of therapy. Our aims were (1) to quantify the serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin in uraemic patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD), in comparison with patients on conservative management, and (2) to study the relationships between adipocytokine levels and previous atherosclerotic vascular disease.
PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS
We studied 82 dialysis patients treated by PD (n = 44, 23 males and 21 females, mean age 54.4 +/- 1.8 years) or HD (n = 38, 22 males and 16 females, age 60.8 +/- 1.6 years). A group of 19 uraemic patients on conservative management served as the control. Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were measured in all subjects. Information on vascular disease (cerebral vascular, peripheral vascular and heart disease) was obtained from a detailed medical history.
PD patients showed significantly higher serum leptin concentrations [median (interquartile range), 28.7 (13.0-71.9) microg/l] than those found in patients on HD [9.7 (4.7-31.9) microg/l, P < 0.01] or in conservative management [5.9 (4.3-38.6) microg/l, P < 0.05]. Adiponectin concentrations were similar in the three groups of patients (mean +/- SEM, 48.0 +/- 4.5 mg/l in PD, 57.7 +/- 4.4 mg/l in HD, and 44.4 +/- 7.0 mg/l in controls, NS). Patients treated by both PD and HD exhibited resistin concentrations significantly higher than those found in controls (26.3 +/- 0.99 and 27.5 +/- 1.4 microg/l, respectively, vs. 17.3 +/- 1.0 microg/l, P < 0.001). Leptin concentrations were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.287, P < 0.01) and adiponectin levels were negatively related to BMI (r = -0.416, P < 0.001) and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-R) index (r =-0.216, P < 0.05). Leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels in patients with previous vascular events were similar to those found in patients without these complications. Logistic regression analysis did not demonstrate any relationship between serum adipocytokine concentrations and the presence of vascular disease of any type. A significant relationship between resistin and heart disease [odds ratio (OR) 1.80 (1.03-3.15), P = 0.039] was found when analysing subgroups of patients.
These data suggest that leptin levels are higher in PD patients, and resistin levels are higher in PD and HD patients in relation to patients on conservative management, whereas adiponectin concentrations are similar in the three groups. These results do not support the presence of a clinically relevant relationship between adipocytokines and previous episodes of vascular disease in the whole population or in patients classified in subgroups, with the only exception of a relationship between resistin levels and heart disease.