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Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 179(4):813-25P

Abstract

RATIONALE

The cognitive and mood effects of caffeine are well documented. However, the majority of studies in this area involve caffeine-deprived, habitual caffeine users. It is therefore unclear whether any beneficial findings are due to the positive effects of caffeine or to the alleviation of caffeine withdrawal.

OBJECTIVES

The present placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study investigated the acute cognitive and mood effects of caffeine in habitual users and habitual non-users of caffeine.

METHOD

Following overnight caffeine withdrawal, 24 habitual caffeine consumers (mean=217 mg/day) and 24 habitual non-consumers (20 mg/day) received a 150 ml drink containing either 75 or 150 mg of caffeine or a matching placebo, at intervals of > or =48 h. Cognitive and mood assessments were undertaken at baseline and 30 min post-drink. These included the Cognitive Drug Research computerised test battery, two serial subtraction tasks, a sentence verification task and subjective visual analogue mood scales.

RESULTS

There were no baseline differences between the groups' mood or performance. Following caffeine, there were significant improvements in simple reaction time, digit vigilance reaction time, numeric working memory reaction time and sentence verification accuracy, irrespective of group. Self-rated mental fatigue was reduced and ratings of alertness were significantly improved by caffeine independent of group. There were also group effects for rapid visual information processing false alarms and spatial memory accuracy with habitual consumers outperforming non-consumers. There was a single significant interaction of group and treatment effects on jittery ratings. Separate analyses of each groups' responses to caffeine revealed overlapping but differential responses to caffeine. Caffeine tended to benefit consumers' mood more while improving performance more in the non-consumers.

CONCLUSIONS

These results do not support a withdrawal alleviation model. Differences in the patterns of responses to caffeine by habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers may go some way to explaining why some individuals become caffeine consumers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15678363

Citation

Haskell, Crystal F., et al. "Cognitive and Mood Improvements of Caffeine in Habitual Consumers and Habitual Non-consumers of Caffeine." Psychopharmacology, vol. 179, no. 4, 2005, pp. 813-25.
Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, et al. Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;179(4):813-25.
Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Wesnes, K. A., & Scholey, A. B. (2005). Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 179(4), pp. 813-25.
Haskell CF, et al. Cognitive and Mood Improvements of Caffeine in Habitual Consumers and Habitual Non-consumers of Caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;179(4):813-25. PubMed PMID: 15678363.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. AU - Haskell,Crystal F, AU - Kennedy,David O, AU - Wesnes,Keith A, AU - Scholey,Andrew B, Y1 - 2005/01/28/ PY - 2004/08/04/received PY - 2004/11/03/accepted PY - 2005/1/29/pubmed PY - 2005/9/16/medline PY - 2005/1/29/entrez SP - 813 EP - 25 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) VL - 179 IS - 4 N2 - RATIONALE: The cognitive and mood effects of caffeine are well documented. However, the majority of studies in this area involve caffeine-deprived, habitual caffeine users. It is therefore unclear whether any beneficial findings are due to the positive effects of caffeine or to the alleviation of caffeine withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: The present placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study investigated the acute cognitive and mood effects of caffeine in habitual users and habitual non-users of caffeine. METHOD: Following overnight caffeine withdrawal, 24 habitual caffeine consumers (mean=217 mg/day) and 24 habitual non-consumers (20 mg/day) received a 150 ml drink containing either 75 or 150 mg of caffeine or a matching placebo, at intervals of > or =48 h. Cognitive and mood assessments were undertaken at baseline and 30 min post-drink. These included the Cognitive Drug Research computerised test battery, two serial subtraction tasks, a sentence verification task and subjective visual analogue mood scales. RESULTS: There were no baseline differences between the groups' mood or performance. Following caffeine, there were significant improvements in simple reaction time, digit vigilance reaction time, numeric working memory reaction time and sentence verification accuracy, irrespective of group. Self-rated mental fatigue was reduced and ratings of alertness were significantly improved by caffeine independent of group. There were also group effects for rapid visual information processing false alarms and spatial memory accuracy with habitual consumers outperforming non-consumers. There was a single significant interaction of group and treatment effects on jittery ratings. Separate analyses of each groups' responses to caffeine revealed overlapping but differential responses to caffeine. Caffeine tended to benefit consumers' mood more while improving performance more in the non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support a withdrawal alleviation model. Differences in the patterns of responses to caffeine by habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers may go some way to explaining why some individuals become caffeine consumers. SN - 0033-3158 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15678363/Cognitive_and_mood_improvements_of_caffeine_in_habitual_consumers_and_habitual_non_consumers_of_caffeine_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-2104-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -