Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2005; 46(2):186-97JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they select, how they evaluate their responses and which emotions they express in hypothetical situations.

METHOD

The participants comprised 242 Dutch children (120 girls and 122 boys; mean age: 117.2 months), who were assigned by means of peer nominations (Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, et al., 1996) to one of the following roles: bully (n=21), follower of the bully (n=38), victim (n=35), defender of the victim (n=48), outsider (n=52) and not involved (n=32). Sixteen children (including 3 bully/victims) were not given any role. The reactive and proactive aggression scale (Dodge, & Coie, 1987) was filled out by teachers in order to test the association between these types of aggression and involvement in bullying. Children were presented with ambiguous scenarios and responded to questions about attribution of intent, goal selection and emotions (anger and sadness). In addition, two questionnaires were administered to children: one assessed perceived self-efficacy in performing aggression, inhibiting aggression and using verbal persuasion skills, and the other assessed expected outcomes from behaving aggressively or prosocially.

RESULTS

Results showed that while reactive aggression was common in bullies and victims, proactive aggression was only characteristic of bullies. Both bullies and victims, compared to the other children, scored higher on hostile interpretation, anger, retaliation and ease of aggression. Bullies and followers claimed that it was easy for them to use verbal persuasion, while victims turned out to be the saddest group. All children, irrespective of their role in the peer group, thought that aggressive as well as prosocial behavior was more likely to produce desired results from a friendly peer than from an aggressive one.

CONCLUSIONS

Bullies and victims seem to be similar in reactive aggression, SIP, and in the expression of anger, but the motivations which lead to their behavior may be different, as well as the final outcomes of their acts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. M.Camodeca@psy.vu.nlNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15679527

Citation

Camodeca, Marina, and Frits A. Goossens. "Aggression, Social Cognitions, Anger and Sadness in Bullies and Victims." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, vol. 46, no. 2, 2005, pp. 186-97.
Camodeca M, Goossens FA. Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(2):186-97.
Camodeca, M., & Goossens, F. A. (2005). Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 46(2), pp. 186-97.
Camodeca M, Goossens FA. Aggression, Social Cognitions, Anger and Sadness in Bullies and Victims. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(2):186-97. PubMed PMID: 15679527.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims. AU - Camodeca,Marina, AU - Goossens,Frits A, PY - 2005/2/1/pubmed PY - 2005/5/10/medline PY - 2005/2/1/entrez SP - 186 EP - 97 JF - Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines JO - J Child Psychol Psychiatry VL - 46 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they select, how they evaluate their responses and which emotions they express in hypothetical situations. METHOD: The participants comprised 242 Dutch children (120 girls and 122 boys; mean age: 117.2 months), who were assigned by means of peer nominations (Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, et al., 1996) to one of the following roles: bully (n=21), follower of the bully (n=38), victim (n=35), defender of the victim (n=48), outsider (n=52) and not involved (n=32). Sixteen children (including 3 bully/victims) were not given any role. The reactive and proactive aggression scale (Dodge, & Coie, 1987) was filled out by teachers in order to test the association between these types of aggression and involvement in bullying. Children were presented with ambiguous scenarios and responded to questions about attribution of intent, goal selection and emotions (anger and sadness). In addition, two questionnaires were administered to children: one assessed perceived self-efficacy in performing aggression, inhibiting aggression and using verbal persuasion skills, and the other assessed expected outcomes from behaving aggressively or prosocially. RESULTS: Results showed that while reactive aggression was common in bullies and victims, proactive aggression was only characteristic of bullies. Both bullies and victims, compared to the other children, scored higher on hostile interpretation, anger, retaliation and ease of aggression. Bullies and followers claimed that it was easy for them to use verbal persuasion, while victims turned out to be the saddest group. All children, irrespective of their role in the peer group, thought that aggressive as well as prosocial behavior was more likely to produce desired results from a friendly peer than from an aggressive one. CONCLUSIONS: Bullies and victims seem to be similar in reactive aggression, SIP, and in the expression of anger, but the motivations which lead to their behavior may be different, as well as the final outcomes of their acts. SN - 0021-9630 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15679527/Aggression_social_cognitions_anger_and_sadness_in_bullies_and_victims_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00347.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -