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Fatty acid intake and incident nephrolithiasis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Elevated levels of arachidonic acid in cell membranes may promote the hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria that are characteristic of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. The intake of n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may decrease the arachidonic acid content of cell membranes and reduce urinary excretion of calcium and oxalate. It has been proposed that greater intake of EPA and DHA (through dietary sources or fish oil supplementation) may reduce the risk for kidney stone formation.

METHODS

After excluding subjects with a prior history of kidney stones, we prospectively examined the relation between fatty acid intake (including fish oil supplements) and incident symptomatic kidney stones in 3 large cohorts: the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (N = 46,043), the Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I; N = 92,079), and the Nurses' Health Study II (N = 96,304). Self-administered food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess fatty acid intake every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust simultaneously for a variety of risk factors.

RESULTS

We documented 3,956 incident kidney stones during a combined 36 years of follow-up. After adjustment for intake of other dietary factors, no association was detected between the intake of arachidonic acid or linoleic acid (a metabolic precursor to arachidonic acid) and the risk for incident kidney stones. Older women (NHS I) in the highest quintile of EPA and DHA intake had a multivariate relative risk of 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.56; P for trend = 0.04) of stone formation compared with women in the lowest quintile. However, this relation was not observed in the other 2 cohorts.

CONCLUSION

Fatty acid intake is not consistently associated with the development of kidney stones. Greater levels of arachidonic and linoleic acid intake do not increase the risk for developing a kidney stone, and greater intake of n-3 fatty acids does not reduce the risk.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory and Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. entaylor@partners.org

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Arachidonic Acid
    Dentists
    Dietary Fats
    Fatty Acids
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Fish Oils
    Humans
    Linoleic Acid
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nephrocalcinosis
    Nurses
    Pharmacists
    Physicians
    Prospective Studies
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Veterinarians

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15685503

    Citation

    Taylor, Eric N., et al. "Fatty Acid Intake and Incident Nephrolithiasis." American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, vol. 45, no. 2, 2005, pp. 267-74.
    Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Fatty acid intake and incident nephrolithiasis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(2):267-74.
    Taylor, E. N., Stampfer, M. J., & Curhan, G. C. (2005). Fatty acid intake and incident nephrolithiasis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 45(2), pp. 267-74.
    Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Fatty Acid Intake and Incident Nephrolithiasis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(2):267-74. PubMed PMID: 15685503.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Fatty acid intake and incident nephrolithiasis. AU - Taylor,Eric N, AU - Stampfer,Meir J, AU - Curhan,Gary C, PY - 2005/2/3/pubmed PY - 2005/9/10/medline PY - 2005/2/3/entrez SP - 267 EP - 74 JF - American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation JO - Am. J. Kidney Dis. VL - 45 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of arachidonic acid in cell membranes may promote the hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria that are characteristic of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. The intake of n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may decrease the arachidonic acid content of cell membranes and reduce urinary excretion of calcium and oxalate. It has been proposed that greater intake of EPA and DHA (through dietary sources or fish oil supplementation) may reduce the risk for kidney stone formation. METHODS: After excluding subjects with a prior history of kidney stones, we prospectively examined the relation between fatty acid intake (including fish oil supplements) and incident symptomatic kidney stones in 3 large cohorts: the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (N = 46,043), the Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I; N = 92,079), and the Nurses' Health Study II (N = 96,304). Self-administered food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess fatty acid intake every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust simultaneously for a variety of risk factors. RESULTS: We documented 3,956 incident kidney stones during a combined 36 years of follow-up. After adjustment for intake of other dietary factors, no association was detected between the intake of arachidonic acid or linoleic acid (a metabolic precursor to arachidonic acid) and the risk for incident kidney stones. Older women (NHS I) in the highest quintile of EPA and DHA intake had a multivariate relative risk of 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.56; P for trend = 0.04) of stone formation compared with women in the lowest quintile. However, this relation was not observed in the other 2 cohorts. CONCLUSION: Fatty acid intake is not consistently associated with the development of kidney stones. Greater levels of arachidonic and linoleic acid intake do not increase the risk for developing a kidney stone, and greater intake of n-3 fatty acids does not reduce the risk. SN - 1523-6838 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15685503/Fatty_acid_intake_and_incident_nephrolithiasis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0272638604014131 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -