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Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past 2 decades, raising concerns about the physical and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity. We investigated the association between obesity and health-related quality of life in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

METHODS

A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the 1996 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7 to 12 during the 1994-1995 school year, and 4743 adolescents with direct measures of height and weight. Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts to determine percentiles, we used 5 body mass categories. Underweight was at or below the 5th percentile, normal BMI was between the 5th and 85th percentiles, at risk for overweight was between the 85th and 95th percentiles, overweight was between the 95th and 97th percentiles + 2 BMI units, and obese was at or above the 97th percentile + 2 BMI units. Four dimensions of health-related quality of life were measured: general health (self-reported general health), physical health (absence or presence of functional limitations and illness symptoms), emotional health (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and a school and social functioning scale.

RESULTS

We found a statistically significant relationship between BMI and general and physical health but not psychosocial outcomes. Adolescents who were overweight had significantly worse self-reported health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-3.51), as did obese adolescents (OR: 4.49; 95% CI: 2.87-7.03). Overweight (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.68) and obese (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) adolescents were also more likely to have a functional limitation. Only among the youngest adolescents (ages 12-14) did we find a significant deleterious impact of overweight and obesity on depression, self-esteem, and school/social functioning.

CONCLUSIONS

Using a nationally representative sample, we found that obesity in adolescence is linked with poor physical quality of life. However, in the general population, adolescents with above normal body mass did not report poorer emotional, school, or social functioning.

Links

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA. kswallen@ssc.wisc.edu

    , ,

    Source

    Pediatrics 115:2 2005 Feb pg 340-7

    MeSH

    Activities of Daily Living
    Adolescent
    Body Height
    Body Mass Index
    Body Weight
    Child
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Female
    Health Status
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Mental Health
    Obesity
    Physical Fitness
    Quality of Life
    Self Concept
    Sex Factors
    Socioeconomic Factors
    Thinness

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15687442

    Citation

    Swallen, Karen C., et al. "Overweight, Obesity, and Health-related Quality of Life Among Adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health." Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2, 2005, pp. 340-7.
    Swallen KC, Reither EN, Haas SA, et al. Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):340-7.
    Swallen, K. C., Reither, E. N., Haas, S. A., & Meier, A. M. (2005). Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Pediatrics, 115(2), pp. 340-7.
    Swallen KC, et al. Overweight, Obesity, and Health-related Quality of Life Among Adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):340-7. PubMed PMID: 15687442.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. AU - Swallen,Karen C, AU - Reither,Eric N, AU - Haas,Steven A, AU - Meier,Ann M, PY - 2005/2/3/pubmed PY - 2005/5/6/medline PY - 2005/2/3/entrez SP - 340 EP - 7 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 115 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past 2 decades, raising concerns about the physical and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity. We investigated the association between obesity and health-related quality of life in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the 1996 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7 to 12 during the 1994-1995 school year, and 4743 adolescents with direct measures of height and weight. Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts to determine percentiles, we used 5 body mass categories. Underweight was at or below the 5th percentile, normal BMI was between the 5th and 85th percentiles, at risk for overweight was between the 85th and 95th percentiles, overweight was between the 95th and 97th percentiles + 2 BMI units, and obese was at or above the 97th percentile + 2 BMI units. Four dimensions of health-related quality of life were measured: general health (self-reported general health), physical health (absence or presence of functional limitations and illness symptoms), emotional health (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and a school and social functioning scale. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant relationship between BMI and general and physical health but not psychosocial outcomes. Adolescents who were overweight had significantly worse self-reported health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-3.51), as did obese adolescents (OR: 4.49; 95% CI: 2.87-7.03). Overweight (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.68) and obese (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) adolescents were also more likely to have a functional limitation. Only among the youngest adolescents (ages 12-14) did we find a significant deleterious impact of overweight and obesity on depression, self-esteem, and school/social functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Using a nationally representative sample, we found that obesity in adolescence is linked with poor physical quality of life. However, in the general population, adolescents with above normal body mass did not report poorer emotional, school, or social functioning. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15687442/Overweight_obesity_and_health_related_quality_of_life_among_adolescents:_the_National_Longitudinal_Study_of_Adolescent_Health_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15687442 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -