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Functional assessment of a washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration, pH, barrier function, lipid content, integrity and cohesion in a controlled washing test.
Skin Res Technol. 2005 Feb; 11(1):53-60.SR

Abstract

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE

Sensitive skin has been described as a skin type with higher reactivity than normal skin and exaggerated reactions to external irritants. Washing with soaps is harmful for barrier-related parameters. Cutaneous irritation induced by cleansing products under exaggerated test conditions, e.g. patch testing, is not necessarily predictive of the irritation occurring under standardized daily use conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of an improved washing solution for sensitive skin in a half-site comparison on barrier-related parameters.

METHODS

Thirty healthy volunteers with self-reported sensitive and so-called problematic skin performed standardized washings with a soap-free washing emulsion with mild acidity (pH 5.5) for 3 weeks. Test areas were both forearms and the cheek. Non-invasive biophysical measurements of the following skin parameters, epidermal permeability barrier function measured as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum (SC) hydration, pH value, skin surface lipids, skin temperature and SC integrity/cohesion, were assessed prior to the first washing, on days 7, 14 and 21 after beginning the washing procedure. SC cohesion was quantified using two independent methods on D-Squame tapes: optical spectroscopy measuring the absorbance and a protein assay assessing the total protein (Bradford). Both methods showed a good correlation. SC integrity was quantified by measuring TEWL after sequential stripping with D-Squame tapes.

RESULTS

The use of the washing emulsion led to a mild damage of the epidermal permeability barrier function with no marked difference to water application. Furthermore, a mild but significant dehydration was assessed after 21 days vs. baseline without any differences between the water-treated and the washing emulsion-treated forearm. On the cheek no dehydration was detectable but the lipid content was reduced under the washing emulsion. The pH value increased in all three test areas after 21 days, again without significant differences between water and the washing solution. SC cohesion was quantified using two independent methods on D-Squame tapes: optical spectroscopy measuring the absorbance and a protein assay assessing the total protein (Bradford). Both methods showed a good correlation. The SC cohesion decreased after 21 days on the water-treated as well as on the washing emulsion-treated arm. The decrease over time was significant when used the optical spectroscopy measuring. A standardized questionnaire revealed positive characteristics of the washing emulsion and good acceptance.

CONCLUSION

The investigated standardized washing model with the endpoints epidermal barrier function, SC hydration, surface pH, skin surface lipids, skin temperature and SC integrity/cohesion showed only mild damage comparable to washing with water.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15691260

Citation

Bornkessel, A, et al. "Functional Assessment of a Washing Emulsion for Sensitive Skin: Mild Impairment of Stratum Corneum Hydration, pH, Barrier Function, Lipid Content, Integrity and Cohesion in a Controlled Washing Test." Skin Research and Technology : Official Journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI), vol. 11, no. 1, 2005, pp. 53-60.
Bornkessel A, Flach M, Arens-Corell M, et al. Functional assessment of a washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration, pH, barrier function, lipid content, integrity and cohesion in a controlled washing test. Skin Res Technol. 2005;11(1):53-60.
Bornkessel, A., Flach, M., Arens-Corell, M., Elsner, P., & Fluhr, J. W. (2005). Functional assessment of a washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration, pH, barrier function, lipid content, integrity and cohesion in a controlled washing test. Skin Research and Technology : Official Journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI), 11(1), 53-60.
Bornkessel A, et al. Functional Assessment of a Washing Emulsion for Sensitive Skin: Mild Impairment of Stratum Corneum Hydration, pH, Barrier Function, Lipid Content, Integrity and Cohesion in a Controlled Washing Test. Skin Res Technol. 2005;11(1):53-60. PubMed PMID: 15691260.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Functional assessment of a washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration, pH, barrier function, lipid content, integrity and cohesion in a controlled washing test. AU - Bornkessel,A, AU - Flach,M, AU - Arens-Corell,M, AU - Elsner,P, AU - Fluhr,J W, PY - 2005/2/5/pubmed PY - 2005/7/6/medline PY - 2005/2/5/entrez SP - 53 EP - 60 JF - Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI) JO - Skin Res Technol VL - 11 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Sensitive skin has been described as a skin type with higher reactivity than normal skin and exaggerated reactions to external irritants. Washing with soaps is harmful for barrier-related parameters. Cutaneous irritation induced by cleansing products under exaggerated test conditions, e.g. patch testing, is not necessarily predictive of the irritation occurring under standardized daily use conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of an improved washing solution for sensitive skin in a half-site comparison on barrier-related parameters. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers with self-reported sensitive and so-called problematic skin performed standardized washings with a soap-free washing emulsion with mild acidity (pH 5.5) for 3 weeks. Test areas were both forearms and the cheek. Non-invasive biophysical measurements of the following skin parameters, epidermal permeability barrier function measured as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum (SC) hydration, pH value, skin surface lipids, skin temperature and SC integrity/cohesion, were assessed prior to the first washing, on days 7, 14 and 21 after beginning the washing procedure. SC cohesion was quantified using two independent methods on D-Squame tapes: optical spectroscopy measuring the absorbance and a protein assay assessing the total protein (Bradford). Both methods showed a good correlation. SC integrity was quantified by measuring TEWL after sequential stripping with D-Squame tapes. RESULTS: The use of the washing emulsion led to a mild damage of the epidermal permeability barrier function with no marked difference to water application. Furthermore, a mild but significant dehydration was assessed after 21 days vs. baseline without any differences between the water-treated and the washing emulsion-treated forearm. On the cheek no dehydration was detectable but the lipid content was reduced under the washing emulsion. The pH value increased in all three test areas after 21 days, again without significant differences between water and the washing solution. SC cohesion was quantified using two independent methods on D-Squame tapes: optical spectroscopy measuring the absorbance and a protein assay assessing the total protein (Bradford). Both methods showed a good correlation. The SC cohesion decreased after 21 days on the water-treated as well as on the washing emulsion-treated arm. The decrease over time was significant when used the optical spectroscopy measuring. A standardized questionnaire revealed positive characteristics of the washing emulsion and good acceptance. CONCLUSION: The investigated standardized washing model with the endpoints epidermal barrier function, SC hydration, surface pH, skin surface lipids, skin temperature and SC integrity/cohesion showed only mild damage comparable to washing with water. SN - 0909-752X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15691260/Functional_assessment_of_a_washing_emulsion_for_sensitive_skin:_mild_impairment_of_stratum_corneum_hydration_pH_barrier_function_lipid_content_integrity_and_cohesion_in_a_controlled_washing_test_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2005.00091.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -