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Follicular phase hormone levels and menstrual bleeding status in the approach to menopause.
Fertil Steril. 2005 Feb; 83(2):383-92.FS

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

(1) Characterize the relationship between follicular phase hormone levels and menstrual bleeding patterns in the approach to menopause; (2) identify racial differences in hormone levels; (3) determine independent contributions of menstrual status, race, age, BMI, and smoking to hormone levels.

DESIGN

Randomly identified, population-based cohort, stratified to obtain equal numbers of African American and Caucasian women, prospectively followed for 5 years.

SETTING

Women in Philadelphia County, PA, identified by random-digit telephone dialing.

PARTICIPANT(S)

Women aged 35 to 47 years with regular menstrual cycles at enrollment (N = 436).

DATA COLLECTION

Blood sampling twice in each of 7 assessment periods during days 1-6 of the cycle, menstrual dates identified through structured interview and daily symptom reports, anthropometric measures and standardized questionnaires at each assessment period.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)

Serum levels of follicular E(2), FSH, inhibin B, and LH.

RESULT(S)

The mean levels of E(2), FSH, inhibin B, and LH were differentially associated with the 5 menstrual status groups defined by changes in bleeding patterns. Significant changes in hormone levels occurred prior to missed menstrual cycles for inhibin B, FSH, and LH. All hormones had a highly significant interaction between menstrual status and BMI. African American women had significantly lower levels of E(2) and LH compared to Caucasian women in univariate analyses. The interaction of race, menstrual status, and BMI was highly significant (P<.001) for E(2), with African American women having lower E(2) levels until postmenopause, when E(2) levels were higher in AA women with BMI > or =25 and BMI > or =30.

CONCLUSION(S)

Levels of E(2), FSH, LH, and inhibin B are significantly associated with menstrual bleeding patterns in late reproductive age women and differentiate the earliest stages of the menopausal transition. Racial differences in mean levels of E(2) appear strongly mediated by BMI.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. freemane@mail.med.upenn.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15705379

Citation

Freeman, E W., et al. "Follicular Phase Hormone Levels and Menstrual Bleeding Status in the Approach to Menopause." Fertility and Sterility, vol. 83, no. 2, 2005, pp. 383-92.
Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Gracia CR, et al. Follicular phase hormone levels and menstrual bleeding status in the approach to menopause. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(2):383-92.
Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Gracia, C. R., Kapoor, S., Lin, H., Liu, L., & Nelson, D. B. (2005). Follicular phase hormone levels and menstrual bleeding status in the approach to menopause. Fertility and Sterility, 83(2), 383-92.
Freeman EW, et al. Follicular Phase Hormone Levels and Menstrual Bleeding Status in the Approach to Menopause. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(2):383-92. PubMed PMID: 15705379.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Follicular phase hormone levels and menstrual bleeding status in the approach to menopause. AU - Freeman,E W, AU - Sammel,M D, AU - Gracia,C R, AU - Kapoor,S, AU - Lin,H, AU - Liu,L, AU - Nelson,D B, PY - 2004/03/10/received PY - 2004/06/29/revised PY - 2004/06/29/accepted PY - 2005/2/12/pubmed PY - 2005/4/6/medline PY - 2005/2/12/entrez SP - 383 EP - 92 JF - Fertility and sterility JO - Fertil Steril VL - 83 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: (1) Characterize the relationship between follicular phase hormone levels and menstrual bleeding patterns in the approach to menopause; (2) identify racial differences in hormone levels; (3) determine independent contributions of menstrual status, race, age, BMI, and smoking to hormone levels. DESIGN: Randomly identified, population-based cohort, stratified to obtain equal numbers of African American and Caucasian women, prospectively followed for 5 years. SETTING: Women in Philadelphia County, PA, identified by random-digit telephone dialing. PARTICIPANT(S): Women aged 35 to 47 years with regular menstrual cycles at enrollment (N = 436). DATA COLLECTION: Blood sampling twice in each of 7 assessment periods during days 1-6 of the cycle, menstrual dates identified through structured interview and daily symptom reports, anthropometric measures and standardized questionnaires at each assessment period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Serum levels of follicular E(2), FSH, inhibin B, and LH. RESULT(S): The mean levels of E(2), FSH, inhibin B, and LH were differentially associated with the 5 menstrual status groups defined by changes in bleeding patterns. Significant changes in hormone levels occurred prior to missed menstrual cycles for inhibin B, FSH, and LH. All hormones had a highly significant interaction between menstrual status and BMI. African American women had significantly lower levels of E(2) and LH compared to Caucasian women in univariate analyses. The interaction of race, menstrual status, and BMI was highly significant (P<.001) for E(2), with African American women having lower E(2) levels until postmenopause, when E(2) levels were higher in AA women with BMI > or =25 and BMI > or =30. CONCLUSION(S): Levels of E(2), FSH, LH, and inhibin B are significantly associated with menstrual bleeding patterns in late reproductive age women and differentiate the earliest stages of the menopausal transition. Racial differences in mean levels of E(2) appear strongly mediated by BMI. SN - 0015-0282 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15705379/Follicular_phase_hormone_levels_and_menstrual_bleeding_status_in_the_approach_to_menopause_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0015-0282(04)02829-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -