Cognitive deterioration and electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep.Epilepsy Behav. 2005 Mar; 6(2):167-73.EB
The results of long-term follow-up of 10 children with global or specific cognitive deterioration and, on the electroencephalogram, electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) are described. They were referred because of cognitive deterioration and underwent repeated neurological and neuropsychological examinations and all-night electroencephalography. A previous cognitive level was known or could be estimated in all. Seven children had a continuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS) syndrome, with global cognitive deterioration in four and more specific cognitive decline in three, and another three children had Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS). Of the last three, two children never had seizures, while the other had localization-related epilepsy. No children experienced aggravation of clinical seizures. However, therapy was disappointing. Cognitive dysfunction did not respond to valproate and/or benzodiazepines in 9 of the 10 children. A frontal epileptic focus was found in 5 of 7 children with CSWS, and a left temporal focus in 2 of 3 children with LKS. The ESES persisted in CSWS for 5-9 years and in LKS for 1-5 years, and disappeared at puberty. Good cognitive recovery after disappearance of ESES occurred in only one child, and partial recovery in four. An unfavorable prognosis of cognitive deterioration seems to be related to long-duration ESES and/or early onset epileptic activity. The authors are of the opinion that cognitive deterioration in children, with or without manifest epileptic seizures, should mandate electroencephalographic investigation during sleep.