Evodiamine abolishes constitutive and inducible NF-kappaB activation by inhibiting IkappaBalpha kinase activation, thereby suppressing NF-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic and metastatic gene expression, up-regulating apoptosis, and inhibiting invasion.J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29; 280(17):17203-12.JB
Evodiamine, an alkaloidal component extracted from the fruit of Evodiae fructus (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., Rutaceae), exhibits antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and apoptotic activities through a poorly defined mechanism. Because several genes that regulate cellular proliferation, carcinogenesis, metastasis, and survival are regulated by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we postulated that evodiamine mediates its activity by modulating NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of evodiamine on NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression activated by various carcinogens. We demonstrate that evodiamine was a highly potent inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation, and it abrogated both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation. The inhibition corresponded with the sequential suppression of IkappaBalpha kinase activity, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and p65 acetylation. Evodiamine also inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced Akt activation and its association with IKK. Suppression of Akt activation was specific, because it had no effect on JNK or p38 MAPK activation. Evodiamine also inhibited the NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression activated by TNF, TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, NIK, and IKK but not that activated by the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. NF-kappaB-regulated gene products such as Cyclin D1, c-Myc, COX-2, MMP-9, ICAM-1, MDR1, Survivin, XIAP, IAP1, IAP2, FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bfl-1/A1 were all down-regulated by evodiamine. This down-regulation potentiated the apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents and suppressed TNF-induced invasive activity. Overall, our results indicated that evodiamine inhibits both constitutive and induced NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression and that this inhibition may provide a molecular basis for the ability of evodiamine to suppress proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit metastasis.