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Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr; 59(4):533-41.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; S-25OHD) in adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in four countries of northern Europe and to explain differences in S-25OHD concentrations between and within the countries.

DESIGN

A cross-sectional observational study conducted in a standardised way during February-March. S-25OHD was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin D and calcium intake was calculated using a standardised food composition database.

SETTING

Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and Poland.

SUBJECTS

A total of 199 girls (mean (s.d.) age 12.6 (0.5) y) and 221 women (mean (s.d.) age 71.8 (1.4) y).

RESULTS

The median (inter quartiles) concentration of S-25OHD was 29.4 (20.3, 38.3) nmol/l for the girls and 40.7 (28.0, 54.2) nmol/l for the women. S-25OHD below 25 nmol/l was found in 37% of the girls and 17% of the women, and S-25OHD below 50 nmol/l was found in 92% of the girls and 37% of the women. Positive significant determinants for S-25OHD in girls were use of vitamin D supplements, and in women sun habits, dietary vitamin D intake, use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Body mass index and smoking were negative determinants in women. For women predictors could explain the differences between countries (P(country) = 0.09, R(2) = 0.39), but for girls the difference remained significant even after including predictors (P(country) = 0.03, R(2) = 0.15).

CONCLUSION

Vitamin D status is low in northern Europe during winter. More than one-third of the adolescent girls have vitamin D status below 25 nmol/l and almost all are below 50 nmol/l. Two-thirds of the elderly community-dwelling women have vitamin D status below 50 nmol/l. Use of vitamin D supplements is a significant positive determinant for S-25OHD for both girls and women (P = 0.001).

SPONSORSHIP

The European Fifth Framework Programme (Contract No. QLK1-CT-2000-00623).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark. ria@dfvf.dkNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15714215

Citation

Andersen, R, et al. "Teenage Girls and Elderly Women Living in Northern Europe Have Low Winter Vitamin D Status." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, no. 4, 2005, pp. 533-41.
Andersen R, Mølgaard C, Skovgaard LT, et al. Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(4):533-41.
Andersen, R., Mølgaard, C., Skovgaard, L. T., Brot, C., Cashman, K. D., Chabros, E., Charzewska, J., Flynn, A., Jakobsen, J., Kärkkäinen, M., Kiely, M., Lamberg-Allardt, C., Moreiras, O., Natri, A. M., O'brien, M., Rogalska-Niedzwiedz, M., & Ovesen, L. (2005). Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(4), 533-41.
Andersen R, et al. Teenage Girls and Elderly Women Living in Northern Europe Have Low Winter Vitamin D Status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(4):533-41. PubMed PMID: 15714215.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. AU - Andersen,R, AU - Mølgaard,C, AU - Skovgaard,L T, AU - Brot,C, AU - Cashman,K D, AU - Chabros,E, AU - Charzewska,J, AU - Flynn,A, AU - Jakobsen,J, AU - Kärkkäinen,M, AU - Kiely,M, AU - Lamberg-Allardt,C, AU - Moreiras,O, AU - Natri,A M, AU - O'brien,M, AU - Rogalska-Niedzwiedz,M, AU - Ovesen,L, PY - 2005/2/17/pubmed PY - 2005/9/21/medline PY - 2005/2/17/entrez SP - 533 EP - 41 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 59 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; S-25OHD) in adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in four countries of northern Europe and to explain differences in S-25OHD concentrations between and within the countries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study conducted in a standardised way during February-March. S-25OHD was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin D and calcium intake was calculated using a standardised food composition database. SETTING: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and Poland. SUBJECTS: A total of 199 girls (mean (s.d.) age 12.6 (0.5) y) and 221 women (mean (s.d.) age 71.8 (1.4) y). RESULTS: The median (inter quartiles) concentration of S-25OHD was 29.4 (20.3, 38.3) nmol/l for the girls and 40.7 (28.0, 54.2) nmol/l for the women. S-25OHD below 25 nmol/l was found in 37% of the girls and 17% of the women, and S-25OHD below 50 nmol/l was found in 92% of the girls and 37% of the women. Positive significant determinants for S-25OHD in girls were use of vitamin D supplements, and in women sun habits, dietary vitamin D intake, use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Body mass index and smoking were negative determinants in women. For women predictors could explain the differences between countries (P(country) = 0.09, R(2) = 0.39), but for girls the difference remained significant even after including predictors (P(country) = 0.03, R(2) = 0.15). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status is low in northern Europe during winter. More than one-third of the adolescent girls have vitamin D status below 25 nmol/l and almost all are below 50 nmol/l. Two-thirds of the elderly community-dwelling women have vitamin D status below 50 nmol/l. Use of vitamin D supplements is a significant positive determinant for S-25OHD for both girls and women (P = 0.001). SPONSORSHIP: The European Fifth Framework Programme (Contract No. QLK1-CT-2000-00623). SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15714215/Teenage_girls_and_elderly_women_living_in_northern_Europe_have_low_winter_vitamin_D_status_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602108 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -