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The effects of physical activity and body mass index on cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality among 47 212 middle-aged Finnish men and women.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI), and their combined effect, with the risk of total, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality.

DESIGN

Prospective follow-up study.

SUBJECTS

In all, 22 528 men and 24 684 women aged 25-64 y at baseline having 7394 deaths during a mean follow-up of 17.7 y.

MEASUREMENT

A self-administered questionnaire data on smoking, socioeconomic factors, physical activity and medical history, together with measured height, weight, blood pressure and serum cholesterol using standardized protocol.

RESULT

Physically active subjects had significantly lower age-adjusted mortality from cardiovascular, cancer and all causes compared with sedentary ones. Further adjustment for smoking, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI, diabetes and education affected the results only slightly. Obese subjects (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) had significantly higher cardiovascular and total mortality than the normal weight (18.5< or =BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects. Part of increased mortality among obese subjects was mediated through obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors. BMI had an inverse association with cancer mortality among men and almost significant direct association among women. Total mortality was also increased among the lean (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)) subjects. However, less than 0.3% of deaths were attributed to low body weight, whereas in men 5.5% and in women 17.7% of deaths were attributed to obesity.

CONCLUSION

Regular physical activity and normal weight are both important indicators for a decreased risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. Physical activity had a strong independent effect on mortality, whereas the effect of BMI was partly mediated through other obesity-related risk factors.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Diabetes and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. hu.gang@ktl.fi

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Body Constitution
    Body Mass Index
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cholesterol
    Educational Status
    Epidemiologic Methods
    Female
    Finland
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Motor Activity
    Neoplasms
    Obesity
    Sex Factors
    Smoking
    Social Class

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15724141

    Citation

    Hu, G, et al. "The Effects of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index On Cardiovascular, Cancer and All-cause Mortality Among 47 212 Middle-aged Finnish Men and Women." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 29, no. 8, 2005, pp. 894-902.
    Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Silventoinen K, et al. The effects of physical activity and body mass index on cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality among 47 212 middle-aged Finnish men and women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29(8):894-902.
    Hu, G., Tuomilehto, J., Silventoinen, K., Barengo, N. C., Peltonen, M., & Jousilahti, P. (2005). The effects of physical activity and body mass index on cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality among 47 212 middle-aged Finnish men and women. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 29(8), pp. 894-902.
    Hu G, et al. The Effects of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index On Cardiovascular, Cancer and All-cause Mortality Among 47 212 Middle-aged Finnish Men and Women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29(8):894-902. PubMed PMID: 15724141.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of physical activity and body mass index on cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality among 47 212 middle-aged Finnish men and women. AU - Hu,G, AU - Tuomilehto,J, AU - Silventoinen,K, AU - Barengo,N C, AU - Peltonen,M, AU - Jousilahti,P, PY - 2005/2/23/pubmed PY - 2005/10/26/medline PY - 2005/2/23/entrez SP - 894 EP - 902 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 29 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI), and their combined effect, with the risk of total, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SUBJECTS: In all, 22 528 men and 24 684 women aged 25-64 y at baseline having 7394 deaths during a mean follow-up of 17.7 y. MEASUREMENT: A self-administered questionnaire data on smoking, socioeconomic factors, physical activity and medical history, together with measured height, weight, blood pressure and serum cholesterol using standardized protocol. RESULT: Physically active subjects had significantly lower age-adjusted mortality from cardiovascular, cancer and all causes compared with sedentary ones. Further adjustment for smoking, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI, diabetes and education affected the results only slightly. Obese subjects (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) had significantly higher cardiovascular and total mortality than the normal weight (18.5< or =BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects. Part of increased mortality among obese subjects was mediated through obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors. BMI had an inverse association with cancer mortality among men and almost significant direct association among women. Total mortality was also increased among the lean (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)) subjects. However, less than 0.3% of deaths were attributed to low body weight, whereas in men 5.5% and in women 17.7% of deaths were attributed to obesity. CONCLUSION: Regular physical activity and normal weight are both important indicators for a decreased risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. Physical activity had a strong independent effect on mortality, whereas the effect of BMI was partly mediated through other obesity-related risk factors. SN - 0307-0565 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15724141/The_effects_of_physical_activity_and_body_mass_index_on_cardiovascular_cancer_and_all_cause_mortality_among_47_212_middle_aged_Finnish_men_and_women_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802870 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -