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Dietary fats and membrane function: implications for metabolism and disease.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2005; 80(1):155-69BR

Abstract

Lipids play varied and critical roles in metabolism, with function dramatically modulated by the individual fatty acid moities in complex lipid entities. In particular, the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids greatly influences membrane function. Here we consider the role of dietary fatty acid profile on membrane composition and, in turn, its impact on prevalent disease clusters of the metabolic syndrome and mental illness. Applying the classical physiological conformer-regulator paradigm to quantify the influence of dietary fats on membrane lipid composition (i.e. where the membrane variable is plotted against the same variable in the environment--in this case dietary fats), membrane lipid composition appears as a predominantly regulated parameter. Membranes remain relatively constant in their saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid levels over a wide range of dietary variation for these fatty acids. Membrane composition was found to be more responsive to n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the diet and most sensitive to n-3 PUFA and to the n-3/n-6 ratio. These differential responses are probably due to the fact that both n-6 and n-3 PUFA classes cannot be synthesised de novo by higher animals. Diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid composition are associated with changes in the rates of membrane-linked cellular processes that are major contributors to energy metabolism. For example, in the intrinsic activity of fundamental processes such as the Na+/K+ pump and proton pump-leak cycle. Equally, dietary lipid profile impacts substantially on diseases of the metabolic syndrome with evidence accruing for changes in metabolic rate and neuropeptide regulation (thus influencing both sides of the energy balance equation), in second messenger generation and in gene expression influencing a range of glucose and lipid handling pathways. Finally, there is a growing literature relating changes in dietary fatty acid profile to many aspects of mental health. The understanding of dietary lipid profile and its influence on membrane function in relation to metabolic dysregulation has exciting potential for the prevention and treatment of a range of prevalent disease states.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Metabolic Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15727042

Citation

Hulbert, A J., et al. "Dietary Fats and Membrane Function: Implications for Metabolism and Disease." Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 80, no. 1, 2005, pp. 155-69.
Hulbert AJ, Turner N, Storlien LH, et al. Dietary fats and membrane function: implications for metabolism and disease. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2005;80(1):155-69.
Hulbert, A. J., Turner, N., Storlien, L. H., & Else, P. L. (2005). Dietary fats and membrane function: implications for metabolism and disease. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 80(1), pp. 155-69.
Hulbert AJ, et al. Dietary Fats and Membrane Function: Implications for Metabolism and Disease. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2005;80(1):155-69. PubMed PMID: 15727042.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary fats and membrane function: implications for metabolism and disease. AU - Hulbert,A J, AU - Turner,N, AU - Storlien,L H, AU - Else,P L, PY - 2005/2/25/pubmed PY - 2005/4/1/medline PY - 2005/2/25/entrez SP - 155 EP - 69 JF - Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society JO - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc VL - 80 IS - 1 N2 - Lipids play varied and critical roles in metabolism, with function dramatically modulated by the individual fatty acid moities in complex lipid entities. In particular, the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids greatly influences membrane function. Here we consider the role of dietary fatty acid profile on membrane composition and, in turn, its impact on prevalent disease clusters of the metabolic syndrome and mental illness. Applying the classical physiological conformer-regulator paradigm to quantify the influence of dietary fats on membrane lipid composition (i.e. where the membrane variable is plotted against the same variable in the environment--in this case dietary fats), membrane lipid composition appears as a predominantly regulated parameter. Membranes remain relatively constant in their saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid levels over a wide range of dietary variation for these fatty acids. Membrane composition was found to be more responsive to n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the diet and most sensitive to n-3 PUFA and to the n-3/n-6 ratio. These differential responses are probably due to the fact that both n-6 and n-3 PUFA classes cannot be synthesised de novo by higher animals. Diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid composition are associated with changes in the rates of membrane-linked cellular processes that are major contributors to energy metabolism. For example, in the intrinsic activity of fundamental processes such as the Na+/K+ pump and proton pump-leak cycle. Equally, dietary lipid profile impacts substantially on diseases of the metabolic syndrome with evidence accruing for changes in metabolic rate and neuropeptide regulation (thus influencing both sides of the energy balance equation), in second messenger generation and in gene expression influencing a range of glucose and lipid handling pathways. Finally, there is a growing literature relating changes in dietary fatty acid profile to many aspects of mental health. The understanding of dietary lipid profile and its influence on membrane function in relation to metabolic dysregulation has exciting potential for the prevention and treatment of a range of prevalent disease states. SN - 1464-7931 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15727042/Dietary_fats_and_membrane_function:_implications_for_metabolism_and_disease_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/dietaryfats.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -