Relationship between aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of normotensives, white-coat normotensives, white-coat hypertensives, sustained hypertensives and diabetic patients.Rev Port Cardiol. 2004 Dec; 23(12):1533-47.RP
To evaluate the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and office and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and other cardiovascular risk factors and to determine the discriminatory value of PWV in a large population including normotensive subjects (NT), white-coat normotensives (masked hypertension) (WCNT), and white-coat hypertensives (WCHT) compared to a group of treated and untreated hypertensive patients.
The study population included a total of 688 subjects aged from 18 to 80 years, with no previous cardiovascular events, who underwent 24 h ABP monitoring, biochemical evaluation and determination of PWV and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Subjects were classified as true normotensives (NT, n=132; normal office and ABP values), WCNT (n=39; office BP < 140/90 and daytime BP > or =135 or > or =85 mmHg), WCHT (n=87; office BP > or =140 or > or =90 and daytime BP < 135/85 mmHg). Untreated (UT-HT, n=154) and treated (T-HT, n=171) hypertensive patients and type 2 diabetic patients (DM, n=102) were also studied.
Values of PWV (m/s) in all groups were, in ascending order: NT (8.9 +/- 0.2) < WCHT (9.9 +/- 0.2) < T-HT (11.4 +/- 0.2) = WCNT (11.5 +/- 0.4) < UT-HT (11.9 +/- 0.3) < DM (12.6 +/- 0.4) (ANOVA, p = 0.043), and of LVMI (g/m2): NT (59 +/- 2) = WCHT (63 +/- 2) < WCNT (73 +/- 3) = T-HT (75 +/- 3) = UT-HT (77 +/- 3) < DM (84 +/- 4) (ANOVA, p < 0.05). The percentage of subjects with PWV values below the median (10.7 m/s) was higher (p < 0.02) in NT (81.8%) and WCHT (72.6%) than in UT-HT (49.2%), T-HT (43.6%), WCNT (47.6%) and DM (27.7%). In multiple regression analysis, taking PWV as the dependent variable, age (all groups), 24h systolic BP (UT-HT, T-HT, WCNT and DM) and 24h diastolic BP (NT and WCHT) were the variables that independently influenced the PWV value.
Higher values of PWV occur in clinical situations associated with higher cardiovascular risk. This is in agreement with risk stratification based on ABP values but not on office BP values. Lower PWV and LVMI values occur in NT and WCHT subjects, supporting a low cardiovascular risk in these groups. By contrast, higher PWV values were associated with higher ABP values in DM, hypertensive patients and white-coat normotensives, i.e. clinical situations that are associated with higher cardiovascular risk, who in the present study also exhibited higher LVMI than subjects with normal ABP values.