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Neurocognitive consequences of marihuana--a comparison with pre-drug performance.

Abstract

In determining the effects of regular marihuana use on neurocognition, abilities within specific relevant cognitive domains prior to regular drug use have not been available. The present study examined effects of current and past regular use of marihuana in subjects for whom pre-drug performance had been ascertained in a prospective, longitudinal fashion. A total of 113 young adults, assessed since infancy, were evaluated using neurocognitive tests for which commensurate measures were obtained prior to the initiation of marihuana smoking. Marihuana users, determined by urinalysis and self-report, were categorized as light (< 5 joints per week) and heavy (> or = 5 joints per week) current users and former users, the latter having used the drug regularly in the past (> or = 1 joint per week) but not for at least 3 months. A third of the subjects were using marihuana on a regular basis at the time of assessment with half being heavy users. Among former, regular users, approximately half had been smoking 5 or more joints per week. Overall IQ, memory, processing speed, vocabulary, attention, and abstract reasoning were assessed. After accounting for potentially confounding factors and pre-drug performance in the appropriate cognitive domain, current regular heavy users did significantly worse than non-users in overall IQ, processing speed, immediate, and delayed memory. In contrast, the former marihuana smokers did not show any cognitive impairments. It was concluded that residual marihuana effects are evident beyond the acute intoxication period in current heavy users after taking into account pre-drug performance but similar deficits are no longer apparent 3 months after cessation of regular use, even among former heavy using young adults.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6. peter_fried@carleton.ca

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Analysis of Variance
    Attention
    Cannabis
    Child
    Cognition
    Cognition Disorders
    Concept Formation
    Female
    Humans
    Intelligence Tests
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Marijuana Smoking
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Urinalysis
    Verbal Learning

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15734274

    Citation

    Fried, P A., et al. "Neurocognitive Consequences of Marihuana--a Comparison With Pre-drug Performance." Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 27, no. 2, 2005, pp. 231-9.
    Fried PA, Watkinson B, Gray R. Neurocognitive consequences of marihuana--a comparison with pre-drug performance. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005;27(2):231-9.
    Fried, P. A., Watkinson, B., & Gray, R. (2005). Neurocognitive consequences of marihuana--a comparison with pre-drug performance. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 27(2), pp. 231-9.
    Fried PA, Watkinson B, Gray R. Neurocognitive Consequences of Marihuana--a Comparison With Pre-drug Performance. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005;27(2):231-9. PubMed PMID: 15734274.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Neurocognitive consequences of marihuana--a comparison with pre-drug performance. AU - Fried,P A, AU - Watkinson,B, AU - Gray,R, Y1 - 2004/12/09/ PY - 2004/08/09/received PY - 2004/10/28/revised PY - 2004/11/12/accepted PY - 2005/3/1/pubmed PY - 2005/5/10/medline PY - 2005/3/1/entrez SP - 231 EP - 9 JF - Neurotoxicology and teratology JO - Neurotoxicol Teratol VL - 27 IS - 2 N2 - In determining the effects of regular marihuana use on neurocognition, abilities within specific relevant cognitive domains prior to regular drug use have not been available. The present study examined effects of current and past regular use of marihuana in subjects for whom pre-drug performance had been ascertained in a prospective, longitudinal fashion. A total of 113 young adults, assessed since infancy, were evaluated using neurocognitive tests for which commensurate measures were obtained prior to the initiation of marihuana smoking. Marihuana users, determined by urinalysis and self-report, were categorized as light (< 5 joints per week) and heavy (> or = 5 joints per week) current users and former users, the latter having used the drug regularly in the past (> or = 1 joint per week) but not for at least 3 months. A third of the subjects were using marihuana on a regular basis at the time of assessment with half being heavy users. Among former, regular users, approximately half had been smoking 5 or more joints per week. Overall IQ, memory, processing speed, vocabulary, attention, and abstract reasoning were assessed. After accounting for potentially confounding factors and pre-drug performance in the appropriate cognitive domain, current regular heavy users did significantly worse than non-users in overall IQ, processing speed, immediate, and delayed memory. In contrast, the former marihuana smokers did not show any cognitive impairments. It was concluded that residual marihuana effects are evident beyond the acute intoxication period in current heavy users after taking into account pre-drug performance but similar deficits are no longer apparent 3 months after cessation of regular use, even among former heavy using young adults. SN - 0892-0362 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15734274/Neurocognitive_consequences_of_marihuana__a_comparison_with_pre_drug_performance_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0892-0362(04)00151-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -