Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the tribe Harpalini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase I.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005 Apr; 35(1):127-46.MP
The tribe Harpalini is a group of ground beetles with a world-wide distribution that comprises approximately 2000 species and about 238 genera and subgenera. Hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationships of the subtribes of Harpalini are implicit within the systematic criteria put forward by different authors. A 759 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI was sequenced in 119 specimens (107 species) of 52 genera and subgenera that represent the main lineages of Harpalines, and 3 species of other tribes used as outgroups. A hierarchical study of sequence divergence (under uncorrected and corrected models) and ts:tv ratio pattern analyses were carried out at different taxonomic levels. A low saturation rate was detected at first and second codon positions, whereas A+T richness causes a low transitions:transversions ratio, which suggests--a priori--a high rate of saturation at the third codon position. A progressive accumulation of sequence divergence and a decreasing ts:tv ratio were found from lower to higher taxonomic levels. MP strict consensus, ML, and minimum evolution distance (under ts+tv and tv only schemes) trees showed similar major clades within the tribe. The subtribe Ditomina is a monophyletic lineage with close affinities to the subtribe Harpalina. Harpalina is a polyphyletic lineage as the genus Daptus is always related to members of the subtribe Stenolophina, and the Selenophorines resulted a polyphyletic group related to the subtribe Anisodactylina. Main lineages proposed by Noonan [Quaest. Entomol. 9 (1973) 266] within the subtribe Anisodactylina have been corroborated in this study. The Australian genus Phorticosomus is not related to Ditomina but to the Australian Notiobioids lineage. Most taxa of the subtribe Stenolophina are always included in the same clade, together with taxa of the subtribe Pelmatellina, which might be considered as a lineage of Stenolophina related to Bradycellus and Dicheirotrichus. The subtribe Amblystomina lacks a well-supported relationship to the other subtribes of Harpalini and could not be consistently related to any of them.