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Phytic acid degradation as a means of improving iron absorption.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Nov; 74(6):445-52.IJ

Abstract

Phytic acid is a potent inhibitor of native and fortification iron absorption and low absorption of iron from cereal- and/or legume-based complementary foods is a major factor in the etiology of iron deficiency in infants. Dephytinization of complementary foods or soy-based infant formulas is technically possible but, as phytic acid is strongly inhibitory at low concentrations, complete enzymatic degradation is recommended. If this is not possible, the phytic acid to iron molar ratio should be decreased to below 1:1 and preferably below 0.4:1. Complete dephytinization of cereal- and legume-based complementary foods has been shown to increase the percentage of iron absorption by as much as 12-fold (0.99% to 11.54%) in a single-meal study when the foods were reconstituted with water. The addition of milk, however, inhibits iron absorption and overcomes the enhancing effect of phytic acid degradation. Dephytinization can therefore be strongly recommended only for cereal/legume mixtures reconstituted with water, especially low-cost complementary foods destined for infants in developing countries. In countries where infant cereals are consumed with milk, ascorbic acid addition can more easily be used to overcome the negative effect of phytic acid on iron absorption. Similarly with soy-based infant formulas, especially if manufactured from low-phytate isolates, ascorbic acid can be used to ensure adequate iron absorption.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Rüschlikon, Switzerland. richard.hurrell@ilw.agrl.ethz.ch

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15743020

Citation

Hurrell, Richard F.. "Phytic Acid Degradation as a Means of Improving Iron Absorption." International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift Fur Vitamin- Und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition, vol. 74, no. 6, 2004, pp. 445-52.
Hurrell RF. Phytic acid degradation as a means of improving iron absorption. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74(6):445-52.
Hurrell, R. F. (2004). Phytic acid degradation as a means of improving iron absorption. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift Fur Vitamin- Und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition, 74(6), 445-52.
Hurrell RF. Phytic Acid Degradation as a Means of Improving Iron Absorption. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74(6):445-52. PubMed PMID: 15743020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phytic acid degradation as a means of improving iron absorption. A1 - Hurrell,Richard F, PY - 2005/3/4/pubmed PY - 2005/5/6/medline PY - 2005/3/4/entrez SP - 445 EP - 52 JF - International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition JO - Int J Vitam Nutr Res VL - 74 IS - 6 N2 - Phytic acid is a potent inhibitor of native and fortification iron absorption and low absorption of iron from cereal- and/or legume-based complementary foods is a major factor in the etiology of iron deficiency in infants. Dephytinization of complementary foods or soy-based infant formulas is technically possible but, as phytic acid is strongly inhibitory at low concentrations, complete enzymatic degradation is recommended. If this is not possible, the phytic acid to iron molar ratio should be decreased to below 1:1 and preferably below 0.4:1. Complete dephytinization of cereal- and legume-based complementary foods has been shown to increase the percentage of iron absorption by as much as 12-fold (0.99% to 11.54%) in a single-meal study when the foods were reconstituted with water. The addition of milk, however, inhibits iron absorption and overcomes the enhancing effect of phytic acid degradation. Dephytinization can therefore be strongly recommended only for cereal/legume mixtures reconstituted with water, especially low-cost complementary foods destined for infants in developing countries. In countries where infant cereals are consumed with milk, ascorbic acid addition can more easily be used to overcome the negative effect of phytic acid on iron absorption. Similarly with soy-based infant formulas, especially if manufactured from low-phytate isolates, ascorbic acid can be used to ensure adequate iron absorption. SN - 0300-9831 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15743020/Phytic_acid_degradation_as_a_means_of_improving_iron_absorption_ L2 - https://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/10.1024/0300-9831.74.6.445?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -