Impact of core and secondary foods on nutritional composition of diets in Native-American women.J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Mar; 105(3):413-9.JA
To identify the core and secondary foods among Native-American women in Oklahoma and to determine their impact on nutrient and Food Guide Pyramid serving intakes.
This descriptive study explored food intakes from 4-day weighed food records. Nutrient intakes were estimated using reference data used in national survey data.
Seventy-one Native-American women receiving services from three tribal health clinics in northeast Oklahoma. Statistical analyses performed A food-use frequency score was computed using frequencies of individuals consuming foods across each of 4 days of records. Leading contributors of nutrients and Food Guide Pyramid servings were identified from core and secondary foods.
Thirty foods comprised the list of core foods, led by soda, coffee, and white bread. A majority of total energy, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C, folate, discretionary fat, and added sugar were derived cumulatively from the core and secondary foods. Forty percent of fruit Food Guide Pyramid servings were accounted for by two core foods, bananas, and orange juice. More than half of meat and vegetable Food Guide Pyramid servings were derived from core and secondary foods.
Food patterning data are helpful in the development of effective nutrition education programs. We identified less nutrient-dense core foods that are contributing to discretionary fat and added sugar intakes. Targeted nutrition education programs for Native Americans should promote the nutrient-dense core and secondary foods, such as whole-wheat bread and fruit, while providing more healthful food alternatives to less nutrient-dense foods.