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Using facial expressions as CSs and fearsome and disgusting pictures as UCSs: affective responding and evaluative learning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia.
J Anxiety Disord. 2005; 19(5):539-55.JA

Abstract

Two experiments examine use of an evaluative conditioning (EC) paradigm in the acquisition of fear and disgust responding to neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of three evaluative learning conditions in which neutral facial expressions were paired with fearsome, disgusting, or neutral pictures. No statistically significant differences were detected between the three conditions. However, significant differences emerged within subjects as post-exposure of fear and disgust ratings were higher among expressions that were paired with pictorial stimuli. Experiment 2 sought to examine if an analogue sample of BII phobics would be more susceptible than nonphobic controls to fear and disgust EC utilizing a similar experimental design, given the co-occurrence of fear and disgust in BII-phobic responding. Results failed to demonstrate an EC effect specific to the analogue phobic group, although both groups showed an evaluative shift toward disgust for those facial expressions paired with BII-relevant pictures. Consistent with previous findings, examination of picture rating data suggested that analogue BII phobics rated the BII pictures as significantly more disgusting than fearful. The role of EC processes and a priori expectancy biases in the associative learning of disgust in BII phobia is discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Arkansas, 216 Memorial Hall, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15749572

Citation

Olatunji, Bunmi O., et al. "Using Facial Expressions as CSs and Fearsome and Disgusting Pictures as UCSs: Affective Responding and Evaluative Learning of Fear and Disgust in Blood-injection-injury Phobia." Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 19, no. 5, 2005, pp. 539-55.
Olatunji BO, Lohr JM, Sawchuk CN, et al. Using facial expressions as CSs and fearsome and disgusting pictures as UCSs: affective responding and evaluative learning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19(5):539-55.
Olatunji, B. O., Lohr, J. M., Sawchuk, C. N., & Westendorf, D. H. (2005). Using facial expressions as CSs and fearsome and disgusting pictures as UCSs: affective responding and evaluative learning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(5), 539-55.
Olatunji BO, et al. Using Facial Expressions as CSs and Fearsome and Disgusting Pictures as UCSs: Affective Responding and Evaluative Learning of Fear and Disgust in Blood-injection-injury Phobia. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19(5):539-55. PubMed PMID: 15749572.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Using facial expressions as CSs and fearsome and disgusting pictures as UCSs: affective responding and evaluative learning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia. AU - Olatunji,Bunmi O, AU - Lohr,Jeffrey M, AU - Sawchuk,Craig N, AU - Westendorf,David H, PY - 2004/02/19/received PY - 2004/04/13/revised PY - 2004/05/10/accepted PY - 2005/3/8/pubmed PY - 2005/9/24/medline PY - 2005/3/8/entrez SP - 539 EP - 55 JF - Journal of anxiety disorders JO - J Anxiety Disord VL - 19 IS - 5 N2 - Two experiments examine use of an evaluative conditioning (EC) paradigm in the acquisition of fear and disgust responding to neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of three evaluative learning conditions in which neutral facial expressions were paired with fearsome, disgusting, or neutral pictures. No statistically significant differences were detected between the three conditions. However, significant differences emerged within subjects as post-exposure of fear and disgust ratings were higher among expressions that were paired with pictorial stimuli. Experiment 2 sought to examine if an analogue sample of BII phobics would be more susceptible than nonphobic controls to fear and disgust EC utilizing a similar experimental design, given the co-occurrence of fear and disgust in BII-phobic responding. Results failed to demonstrate an EC effect specific to the analogue phobic group, although both groups showed an evaluative shift toward disgust for those facial expressions paired with BII-relevant pictures. Consistent with previous findings, examination of picture rating data suggested that analogue BII phobics rated the BII pictures as significantly more disgusting than fearful. The role of EC processes and a priori expectancy biases in the associative learning of disgust in BII phobia is discussed. SN - 0887-6185 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15749572/Using_facial_expressions_as_CSs_and_fearsome_and_disgusting_pictures_as_UCSs:_affective_responding_and_evaluative_learning_of_fear_and_disgust_in_blood_injection_injury_phobia_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -