Effect of concomitant consumption of fish oil and vitamin E on production of inflammatory cytokines in healthy elderly humans.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec; 1031:422-4.AN
A beneficial effect of fish oil in reducing inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. This effect occurs in part through fish oil's inhibition of synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Epidemiologic studies have shown a link between increased intake of vitamin E in diet and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines have been indicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, the current study was designed to determine the effect of concomitant consumption of fish oil and vitamin E on interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Healthy elderly subjects consumed fish oil plus different doses of vitamin E for 3 months. The results indicated that, in general, fish oil inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vitamin E did not interfere with this effect of fish oil; rather its supplementation might further contribute to the fish oil-induced inhibition of these cytokines, in particular at the 200 mg/d dose.