Elevated serum levels of stromal-derived factor-1alpha are associated with increased osteoclast activity and osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma patients.Cancer Res. 2005 Mar 01; 65(5):1700-9.CR
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell (PC) malignancy able to mediate massive destruction of the axial and craniofacial skeleton. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the potent chemokine, stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors to the bone marrow. Our studies show that MM PC produce significant levels of SDF-1alpha protein and exhibit elevated plasma levels of SDF-1alpha when compared with normal, age-matched subjects. The level of SDF-1alpha positively correlated with the presence of multiple radiological bone lesions in individuals with MM, suggesting a potential role for SDF-1alpha in osteoclast precursor recruitment and activation. To examine this further, peripheral blood-derived CD14+ osteoclast precursors were cultured in an in vitro osteoclast-potentiating culture system in the presence of recombinant human SDF-1alpha. Although failing to stimulate an increase in TRAP+, multinucleated osteoclast formation, our studies show that SDF-1alpha mediated a dramatic increase in both the number and the size of the resorption lacunae formed. The increased osteoclast motility and activation in response to SDF-1alpha was associated with an increase in the expression of a number of osteoclast activation-related genes, including RANKL, RANK, TRAP, MMP-9, CA-II, and Cathepsin K. Importantly, the small-molecule CXCR4-specific inhibitor, 4F-Benzoyl-TE14011 (T140), effectively blocked osteoclast formation stimulated by the myeloma cell line, RPMI-8226. Based on these findings, we believe that the synthesis of high levels of SDF-1alpha by MM PC may serve to recruit osteoclast precursors to local sites within the bone marrow and enhance their motility and bone-resorbing activity. Therefore, we propose that inhibition of the CXCR4-SDF-1alpha axis may provide an effective means of treatment for MM-induced osteolysis.