Cytogenetics of Hordeum chilense: current status and considerations with reference to breeding.Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005; 109(1-3):378-84.CG
Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. has a number of characteristics interesting for breeding: high crossability with other Triticeae, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and high variability for quality traits such as endosperm storage proteins or carotenoid content. xTritordeum, the amphiploids between H. chilense and different Triticum spp, are bridge species which facilitate the transfer of traits from H. chilense to wheat or triticale. The chromosome pairing between H. chilense and wheat chromosomes is very low (if existing) even in the absence of the action of the Ph1 gene. Nevertheless, translocation between H. chilense and wheat chromosomes has been observed frequently in genomic combinations where univalents of both species are present and therefore a method is available for using H. chilense in wheat or triticale breeding. Hybrids and amphiploids with other crop species of the Triticeae, such as rye or barley, have also been obtained, although to date the production of stable introgression stocks has not been completed. The technique of chromosome painting, using both high- and low-repeated DNA sequences in combination with genomic in situ hybridization have been used as effective methods for basic cytogenetic research in H. chilense, allowing analysis of genome evolution, and monitoring H. chilense chromosomes in interspecific hybridization breeding programs.