Inhibitory effects of flavonol glycosides from Cinnamomum osmophloeum on inflammatory mediators in LPS/IFN-gamma-activated murine macrophages.Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Apr 01; 13(7):2381-8.BM
Four kaempferol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh, a Taiwan endemic tree. These compounds namely, kaempferitrin (1), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosy-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4). The structure of compound 2 was determined by spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. The isolates 1-4 were evaluated as inhibitors of some macrophage functions involved in the inflammatory process. These four compounds inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-12] in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of NO by compounds 1, 3, 4 were 40, 15, 20microM, respectively. In parallel, these concentrations were approximately in a similar manner to that observed for TNF-alpha and IL-12 production. However, compound 2 inhibited NO and cytokines production by 30% at 100microM concentration. On the other hand, compounds 3 and 4 showed no inhibitory effect on the production of NO from macrophages, when inducible NO synthase was already expressed by the stimulation with LPS and IFN-gamma. Taken together, our results provide evidence that isolates of C. osmophloeum possess an anti-inflammatory potential which constitutes a previously unrecognized biological activity.