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Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention: a critical review of non-selective COX-2 blockade (review).
Oncol Rep. 2005 Apr; 13(4):559-83.OR

Abstract

We comprehensively reviewed the published scientific literature on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cancer and evaluated results based upon epidemiologic criteria of judgment: consistency of results, strength of association, dose response, molecular specificity, and biological plausibility. Sufficient data from 91 epidemiologic studies were available to examine the dose response of relative risk and level of NSAID intake for ten human malignancies. Dose response curves were fitted by exponential regression. Results showed a significant exponential decline in the risk with increasing intake of NSAIDs (primarily aspirin or ibuprofen) for 7-10 malignancies including the four major types: colon, breast, lung, and prostate cancer. Daily intake of NSAIDs, primarily aspirin, produced risk reductions of 63% for colon, 39% for breast, 36% for lung, and 39% for prostate cancer. Significant risk reductions were also observed for esophageal (73%), stomach (62%), and ovarian cancer (47%). NSAID effects became apparent after five or more years of use and were stronger with longer duration. Observed protective effects were also consistently stronger for gastrointestinal malignancies (esophagus, stomach, and colon). Results for pancreatic, urinary bladder, and renal cancer were inconsistent. Initial epidemiologic studies of malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's disease, and adult leukemia also found that NSAIDs are protective. A few studies suggest that ibuprofen has stronger anticancer effects than aspirin, particularly against breast and lung cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and increased prostaglandin biosynthesis correlates with carcinogenesis and metastasis at most anatomic sites. Preclinical investigations provide consistent evidence that both selective and non-selective NSAIDs effectively inhibit chemically-induced carcinogenesis of epithelial tumors. This review provides compelling and converging evidence that regular intake of NSAIDs that non-selectively block COX-2 protects against the development of many types of cancer.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, 320 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1240, USA. harris.44@osu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15756426

Citation

Harris, Randall E., et al. "Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Other Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Cancer Prevention: a Critical Review of Non-selective COX-2 Blockade (review)." Oncology Reports, vol. 13, no. 4, 2005, pp. 559-83.
Harris RE, Beebe-Donk J, Doss H, et al. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention: a critical review of non-selective COX-2 blockade (review). Oncol Rep. 2005;13(4):559-83.
Harris, R. E., Beebe-Donk, J., Doss, H., & Burr Doss, D. (2005). Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention: a critical review of non-selective COX-2 blockade (review). Oncology Reports, 13(4), 559-83.
Harris RE, et al. Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Other Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Cancer Prevention: a Critical Review of Non-selective COX-2 Blockade (review). Oncol Rep. 2005;13(4):559-83. PubMed PMID: 15756426.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention: a critical review of non-selective COX-2 blockade (review). AU - Harris,Randall E, AU - Beebe-Donk,Joanne, AU - Doss,Hani, AU - Burr Doss,Deborah, PY - 2005/3/10/pubmed PY - 2005/8/27/medline PY - 2005/3/10/entrez SP - 559 EP - 83 JF - Oncology reports JO - Oncol Rep VL - 13 IS - 4 N2 - We comprehensively reviewed the published scientific literature on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cancer and evaluated results based upon epidemiologic criteria of judgment: consistency of results, strength of association, dose response, molecular specificity, and biological plausibility. Sufficient data from 91 epidemiologic studies were available to examine the dose response of relative risk and level of NSAID intake for ten human malignancies. Dose response curves were fitted by exponential regression. Results showed a significant exponential decline in the risk with increasing intake of NSAIDs (primarily aspirin or ibuprofen) for 7-10 malignancies including the four major types: colon, breast, lung, and prostate cancer. Daily intake of NSAIDs, primarily aspirin, produced risk reductions of 63% for colon, 39% for breast, 36% for lung, and 39% for prostate cancer. Significant risk reductions were also observed for esophageal (73%), stomach (62%), and ovarian cancer (47%). NSAID effects became apparent after five or more years of use and were stronger with longer duration. Observed protective effects were also consistently stronger for gastrointestinal malignancies (esophagus, stomach, and colon). Results for pancreatic, urinary bladder, and renal cancer were inconsistent. Initial epidemiologic studies of malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's disease, and adult leukemia also found that NSAIDs are protective. A few studies suggest that ibuprofen has stronger anticancer effects than aspirin, particularly against breast and lung cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and increased prostaglandin biosynthesis correlates with carcinogenesis and metastasis at most anatomic sites. Preclinical investigations provide consistent evidence that both selective and non-selective NSAIDs effectively inhibit chemically-induced carcinogenesis of epithelial tumors. This review provides compelling and converging evidence that regular intake of NSAIDs that non-selectively block COX-2 protects against the development of many types of cancer. SN - 1021-335X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15756426/Aspirin_ibuprofen_and_other_non_steroidal_anti_inflammatory_drugs_in_cancer_prevention:_a_critical_review_of_non_selective_COX_2_blockade__review__ L2 - http://www.spandidos-publications.com/or/13/4/559 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -