Reproductive anatomy and physiology of the stallion.Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1992 Apr; 8(1):1-29.VC
Examination of the stallion's reproductive tract involves assessments of external and internal anatomy. External examinations are performed by visual inspection, palpation, or ultrasonography and include the scrotum, testes, epididymides, penis, and prepuce. Internal examinations may be performed by rectal palpation, transrectal ultrasonography, or endoscopy and include the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and inguinal rings. A fertile stallion must produce, transport, store, and deliver viable spermatozoa to the mare. The physiologic processes involved include neuroendocrine control, spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, semen delivery, and fertilization.