Effects of accelerators on mobility of 14C-2,4-dichlorophenoxy butyric acid in plant cuticles depends on type and concentration of accelerator.J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(6):2207-12JA
Effects of diethyl suberate (DESU), diethyl sebacate (DES), dibutyl suberate (DBSU), dibutyl sebacate (DBS), and tributyl phosphate (TBP) on diffusion of 14C-2,4-dichlorophenoxy butyric acid (2,4-DB) across cuticular membranes (CM) was studied. Astomatous CM were isolated enzymatically from Stephanotis floribunda Brongn. leaves, and diffusion was measured at 20 degrees C. The alkyl-substituted dicarboxylic acids constitute a homologous series with carbon numbers increasing from C12 to C18. Molecular weights increased only moderately from 230.0 (DESU) to 314.5 (DBS), while partition coefficients varied over orders of magnitude from 92 (DESU), to 1213 (DES), to 15,988 (DBSU), to 210,762 (DBS). All the above compounds turned out to be accelerators as they increased 2,4-DB mobility by up to 40-fold with accelerator concentrations in the CM ranging from only 9.2 to 105 g kg(-1). Efficacy (2,4-DB mobility in the presence/mobility in the absence of accelerators) increased with increasing concentrations of accelerators in CM or in reconstituted cuticular waxes. Plotting efficacy vs accelerator concentration in the CM resulted in straight lines, and their slopes increased in the order DBS (0.14), DBSU (0.31), DES (0.51), and DESU (0.85). Hence, DESU was the most powerful accelerator in this series as it increased 2,4-DB mobility in the CM about 6 times more than DBSU. Waxes constitute the major barrier in plant cuticles, and plots of efficacy vs accelerator concentration in Stephanotis wax were also linear, but compared to CM slopes were steeper by factors of 3.20 (DBS), 2.97 (DBSU), 2.70 (DES), and 1.62 (DESU). TBP was similarly effective as DESU, but plots of efficacy vs concentration were not linear, and curves approached a plateau at 60-80 g kg(-1). These data are discussed with regard to suitability of these accelerators for formulating systemic pesticides.