Flow-mediated dilatation is impaired by a high-saturated fat diet but not by a high-carbohydrate diet.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25(6):1274-9AT
It is unknown whether a low-fat diet, which may elevate triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, harms the endothelium. Our aim was to determine whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (CARB) diet impaired endothelial vasodilation compared with high saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Forty healthy subjects were randomly crossed over to 4, 3-week isocaloric diets high in PUFA, MUFA, or SFA, containing at least 25 g of the relevant fat or a low-fat, CARB, high-glycemic load diet. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), fasting blood lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasma intercellular, and vascular adhesion molecules plasma E- and P-selectin were measured after each intervention. SFA impaired FMD compared with all other diets (5.41+/-2.45% versus 10.80+/-3.69%; P=0.01). FMD did not change on CARB relative to MUFA or PUFA, despite 23% to 39% rises in triglyceride and 10% to 15% falls in HDL cholesterol. P-selectin was highest after SFA (121+/-52.7 ng/mL) versus MUFA (98+/-44.5 ng/mL; P=0.001) and PUFA (96+/-36.4 ng/mL; P=0.001).
High SFA caused deterioration in FMD compared with high PUFA, MUFA, or CARB diets. Inflammatory responses may also be increased on this diet.