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The gender gap in coronary heart disease mortality: is there a difference between blacks and whites?
J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2005; 14(2):117-27JW

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The gender difference (gender gap) in mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) decreases with age. This relationship has not been well characterized in diverse populations.

METHODS

To examine the gender gap in CHD mortality across age groups and to compare the age dependency of the gender gap between blacks and whites, we conducted a prospective cohort study combining data from 9 U.S. epidemiological studies (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study [ARIC], Charleston Heart Study, Evans County Study, Framingham Heart Study [original and offspring cohorts], National Health Examination Follow-up Study [NHEFS], Rancho Bernardo Study, San Antonio Heart Study, and Tecumseh Community Health Study). Baseline examinations were performed between 1958 and 1990 (depending on the study), and mean follow-up was 13.7 years in general communities in several U.S. geographic areas. We included 39,614 subjects >30 years and free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline (18% blacks, 37% men). Completion of follow-up was >97% for all studies. As the main outcome measures, age-specific CHD mortality rates and male/female CHD mortality hazard ratios were calculated using Cox hazards regression.

RESULTS

During 542,605 person-years of follow-up, 2,812 CHD deaths were observed (18% in blacks, 46% in men). At age 45, white men were at a 6-fold increased risk compared with white women (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.6-7.9), whereas black men had a 2-fold increased risk of fatal CHD compared with black women (1.4-3.6). At age 95, men and women were at equal risk in both whites (0.9-1.4) and blacks (0.7-1.6). The difference in the age dependency of the gender gap between blacks and whites was significant (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

The gender difference in CHD mortality was more pronounced in whites than in blacks at younger ages. This discrepancy was not explained by adjustment for CHD risk factors and suggests that other factors may be responsible for the ethnic variation in the gender gap.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15775729

Citation

Ho, Jennifer E., et al. "The Gender Gap in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Is There a Difference Between Blacks and Whites?" Journal of Women's Health (2002), vol. 14, no. 2, 2005, pp. 117-27.
Ho JE, Paultre F, Mosca L. The gender gap in coronary heart disease mortality: is there a difference between blacks and whites? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005;14(2):117-27.
Ho, J. E., Paultre, F., & Mosca, L. (2005). The gender gap in coronary heart disease mortality: is there a difference between blacks and whites? Journal of Women's Health (2002), 14(2), pp. 117-27.
Ho JE, Paultre F, Mosca L. The Gender Gap in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Is There a Difference Between Blacks and Whites. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005;14(2):117-27. PubMed PMID: 15775729.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The gender gap in coronary heart disease mortality: is there a difference between blacks and whites? AU - Ho,Jennifer E, AU - Paultre,Furcy, AU - Mosca,Lori, PY - 2005/3/19/pubmed PY - 2005/6/21/medline PY - 2005/3/19/entrez SP - 117 EP - 27 JF - Journal of women's health (2002) JO - J Womens Health (Larchmt) VL - 14 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The gender difference (gender gap) in mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) decreases with age. This relationship has not been well characterized in diverse populations. METHODS: To examine the gender gap in CHD mortality across age groups and to compare the age dependency of the gender gap between blacks and whites, we conducted a prospective cohort study combining data from 9 U.S. epidemiological studies (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study [ARIC], Charleston Heart Study, Evans County Study, Framingham Heart Study [original and offspring cohorts], National Health Examination Follow-up Study [NHEFS], Rancho Bernardo Study, San Antonio Heart Study, and Tecumseh Community Health Study). Baseline examinations were performed between 1958 and 1990 (depending on the study), and mean follow-up was 13.7 years in general communities in several U.S. geographic areas. We included 39,614 subjects >30 years and free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline (18% blacks, 37% men). Completion of follow-up was >97% for all studies. As the main outcome measures, age-specific CHD mortality rates and male/female CHD mortality hazard ratios were calculated using Cox hazards regression. RESULTS: During 542,605 person-years of follow-up, 2,812 CHD deaths were observed (18% in blacks, 46% in men). At age 45, white men were at a 6-fold increased risk compared with white women (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.6-7.9), whereas black men had a 2-fold increased risk of fatal CHD compared with black women (1.4-3.6). At age 95, men and women were at equal risk in both whites (0.9-1.4) and blacks (0.7-1.6). The difference in the age dependency of the gender gap between blacks and whites was significant (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The gender difference in CHD mortality was more pronounced in whites than in blacks at younger ages. This discrepancy was not explained by adjustment for CHD risk factors and suggests that other factors may be responsible for the ethnic variation in the gender gap. SN - 1540-9996 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15775729/The_gender_gap_in_coronary_heart_disease_mortality:_is_there_a_difference_between_blacks_and_whites L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/jwh.2005.14.117?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -