Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability in patients with epilepsy.Epilepsy Res 2005; 63(2-3):131-9ER
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful tool for the detection of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance of autonomic nervous system in patients at risk of sudden death (SD). SD is more common in patients with epilepsy and the exact mechanisms of SD are unknown. Autonomic nervous system involvement in patients with epilepsy has rarely been studied and has shown conflicting results. Our purpose was to determine if HRV showed any changes in patients with epilepsy in comparison with normal population. A short period analysis of HRV was performed for both the frequency and time domain in 43 epilepsy patients who had generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and who were not taking any medications and also in 43 age and sex matched controls. In the time domain analysis, patients displayed higher SDNN (standard deviation of all R-R intervals), SDANN (standard deviation of mean NN intervals in 5 min recordings) and HRV triangular index than did healthy subjects (p < 0.0001). Patients tended to display higher pNN50 (number of R-R intervals differed by > 50 ms from adjacent interval divided by the total number of all R-R intervals) and RMSSD (root-mean-square of successive differences) values than did healthy subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the frequency domain analysis, the spectral measures of HRV showed a reduction of high frequency (HF) values (is a marker of parasympathetic activity) and an increase of low frequency (LF) values (is a measure of sympathetic activity); as a result, the ratio between low and high frequencies (LF/HF) was significantly increased (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests an increase in the sympathetic control of the heart rate in epilepsy patients who have GTCS. This increased sympathetic activity could play a key role in the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with epilepsy and may be related to the higher incidence of sudden death in this disorder as compared to controls.