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Serum androgen levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: association with hormone therapy, tibolone and raloxifene.
Maturitas. 2005 Apr 11; 50(4):321-30.M

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess endogenous androgen and insulin resistance status in postmenopausal women receiving continuous combined hormone therapy (HT), tibolone, raloxifene or no therapy.

METHODS

A total of 427 postmenopausal women aged 42-71 years were studied in a cross-sectional design. Among them 84 were taking HT (46 women conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg; medroxyprogesterone acetate, 5 mg, CEE/MPA; and 38 women 17beta-estradiol 2 mg; norethisterone acetate 1 mg, E2/NETA); 83 were taking tibolone 2.5 mg; 50 were taking raloxifene HCl 60 mg; and 210 women were not receiving any therapy. Main outcome measures were FSH, LH, estradiol, total testosterone, SHBG, free androgen index (FAI), Delta4-Androstendione (Delta4-A), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR).

RESULTS

In women not on hormone therapy smoking and older age was associated with lower DHEAS levels. FAI values increased linearly with increasing BMI. Age and BMI were positive determinants of HOMA-IR, while no association was identified between endogenous sex steroids and insulin resistance. CEE/MPA therapy was associated with higher SHBG, lower FAI and lower HOMA-IR values compared to women not on therapy (age and BMI-adjusted SHBG: CEE/MPA 148.8 nmol/l, controls 58.7 nmol/l, p < 0.01; age-adjusted FAI: CEE/MPA 0.8, controls 3.2, p < 0.05; age-adjusted HOMA-IR: CEE/MPA 1.3, controls 2.6, p < 0.05). On the contrary, E2/NETA treatment had no effect on these parameters. Women on tibolone had lower SHBG, higher FAI and similar HOMA-IR values compared to controls (age and BMI-adjusted SHBG: 24.1 nmol/l, p < 0.01; FAI: 6.0, p < 0.05; HOMA-IR: 2.3, p = NS). Raloxifene users did not exhibit any difference with respect to sex steroids and HOMA-IR levels.

CONCLUSIONS

CEE/MPA users had lower free testosterone and improved insulin sensitivity. Tibolone on the other hand associated with higher free testosterone, while raloxifene did not relate to any of these parameters.

Authors+Show Affiliations

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, V. Sofias 76, GR-11528, Athens, Greece.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15780533

Citation

Christodoulakos, G, et al. "Serum Androgen Levels and Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Women: Association With Hormone Therapy, Tibolone and Raloxifene." Maturitas, vol. 50, no. 4, 2005, pp. 321-30.
Christodoulakos G, Lambrinoudaki I, Panoulis C, et al. Serum androgen levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: association with hormone therapy, tibolone and raloxifene. Maturitas. 2005;50(4):321-30.
Christodoulakos, G., Lambrinoudaki, I., Panoulis, C., Sioulas, V., Rizos, D., Caramalis, G., Botsis, D., & Creatsas, G. (2005). Serum androgen levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: association with hormone therapy, tibolone and raloxifene. Maturitas, 50(4), 321-30.
Christodoulakos G, et al. Serum Androgen Levels and Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Women: Association With Hormone Therapy, Tibolone and Raloxifene. Maturitas. 2005 Apr 11;50(4):321-30. PubMed PMID: 15780533.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Serum androgen levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: association with hormone therapy, tibolone and raloxifene. AU - Christodoulakos,G, AU - Lambrinoudaki,I, AU - Panoulis,C, AU - Sioulas,V, AU - Rizos,D, AU - Caramalis,G, AU - Botsis,D, AU - Creatsas,G, PY - 2004/04/01/received PY - 2004/07/31/revised PY - 2004/08/05/accepted PY - 2005/3/23/pubmed PY - 2005/7/22/medline PY - 2005/3/23/entrez SP - 321 EP - 30 JF - Maturitas JO - Maturitas VL - 50 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess endogenous androgen and insulin resistance status in postmenopausal women receiving continuous combined hormone therapy (HT), tibolone, raloxifene or no therapy. METHODS: A total of 427 postmenopausal women aged 42-71 years were studied in a cross-sectional design. Among them 84 were taking HT (46 women conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg; medroxyprogesterone acetate, 5 mg, CEE/MPA; and 38 women 17beta-estradiol 2 mg; norethisterone acetate 1 mg, E2/NETA); 83 were taking tibolone 2.5 mg; 50 were taking raloxifene HCl 60 mg; and 210 women were not receiving any therapy. Main outcome measures were FSH, LH, estradiol, total testosterone, SHBG, free androgen index (FAI), Delta4-Androstendione (Delta4-A), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: In women not on hormone therapy smoking and older age was associated with lower DHEAS levels. FAI values increased linearly with increasing BMI. Age and BMI were positive determinants of HOMA-IR, while no association was identified between endogenous sex steroids and insulin resistance. CEE/MPA therapy was associated with higher SHBG, lower FAI and lower HOMA-IR values compared to women not on therapy (age and BMI-adjusted SHBG: CEE/MPA 148.8 nmol/l, controls 58.7 nmol/l, p < 0.01; age-adjusted FAI: CEE/MPA 0.8, controls 3.2, p < 0.05; age-adjusted HOMA-IR: CEE/MPA 1.3, controls 2.6, p < 0.05). On the contrary, E2/NETA treatment had no effect on these parameters. Women on tibolone had lower SHBG, higher FAI and similar HOMA-IR values compared to controls (age and BMI-adjusted SHBG: 24.1 nmol/l, p < 0.01; FAI: 6.0, p < 0.05; HOMA-IR: 2.3, p = NS). Raloxifene users did not exhibit any difference with respect to sex steroids and HOMA-IR levels. CONCLUSIONS: CEE/MPA users had lower free testosterone and improved insulin sensitivity. Tibolone on the other hand associated with higher free testosterone, while raloxifene did not relate to any of these parameters. SN - 0378-5122 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15780533/Serum_androgen_levels_and_insulin_resistance_in_postmenopausal_women:_association_with_hormone_therapy_tibolone_and_raloxifene_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-5122(04)00266-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -