CT60 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 gene region is associated with Graves' disease in an Italian population.Thyroid. 2005 Mar; 15(3):232-8.T
Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune and polygenic disorder. Several studies have shown that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene are involved in the genetic susceptibility. We performed a case control study on 150 patients with GD and 301 controls, matched for age and gender, to verify the association of three polymorphisms located in CTLA-4 region (A49G, [AT](n)-3'UTR, and CT60) and of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 loci with the disease in an Italian population. The prevalence of patients with GD carrying the G allele of CT60 was significantly higher compared to control subjects (p = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 1.82). The allelic frequency of the G allele of CT60 was also significantly higher in patients with GD (p = 0.02). The G allele frequency of A49G in patients was significantly higher compared to control subjects (p = 0.04). The 280 allele phenotype frequency of (AT)(n)-3'UTR was also significantly higher in patients (p = 0.04). The G allele of A49G, the G allele of CT60, and the 280 allele of (AT)(n)-3'UTR microsatellite were significantly increased in patients with GD with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) compared to controls (p = 0.04, p = 0.03, and p = 0.02, respectively), however, we did not find any significant difference between TAO and non-TAO patients. We also found the HLA-DRB1*03 allele to be associated with GD; interestingly, the association of the CTLA-4 markers was independent from the HLA DRB1*03 status. These results highlight the role of the CTLA-4 locus, in addition to HLA, in the susceptibility to GD. Inside the CTLA-4 region, CT60 appears to be the most associated polymorphism to GD, however, further studies are needed to identify the etiologic variant.