Atopy patch test reaction to airborne allergens in the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis.Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2005; 13(1):3-16.AD
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible use of atopy patch test in the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and to characterize an optimal standardized system for atopy patch test in terms of allergen concentrations and time of allergen exposure. The study included 36 patients with atopic dermatitis and IgE-mediated airborne allergy. Patients presented positive results of skin prick tests and serum antigen specific IgE against house dust mite allergens and/or selected grass pollen allergens. Control groups consisted either of patients with allergic rhinitis (control group 1) or healthy volunteers with no signs or symptoms of atopy (control group 2). Allergologic diagnostic workup consisted of skin prick test, serum antigen specific IgE and total IgE evaluation, atopy patch test with selected airborne allergens of different concentrations (0.1xSPT, 1xSPT and 10xSPT), time of allergen exposure (8, 24 and 48 h), and readings of the results (8, 24, 48 and 72 h). Positive results of atopy patch test with airborne allergens were obtained in 47.2% of atopic dermatitis patients and none of control subjects. Contact reaction itself and the intensity of reaction were demonstrated to correlate with allergen concentration and time of allergen exposure on atopy patch test. The dose and time response analysis showed the optimal concentration of allergens for atopy patch test to be 10xSPT, 500000 SBE/ml, and optimal evaluation time 24 and 48 h of allergen application. There was no correlation between atopy patch test results and mean serum concentrations of total or antigen specific IgE. Atopy patch test results did not correlate with localization of skin lesions, severity and extensiveness of skin inflammation. A significantly higher contact reactivity to airborne allergens was recorded in the group of atopic dermatitis patients with polyvalent allergy in comparison with atopic dermatitis patients allergic to only one aeroallergen. It is concluded that atopy patch test is the only provocation test currently available with clinical relevance for contact IgE-mediated sensitization in atopic dermatitis patients. Using petrolatum as a vehicle, allergen concentration of 500000 SBE/ml and evaluation time of 24 and 48 h of allergen application may lead to improved atopy patch test results.