[Attitudes and behaviors related to smoking habit among elementary and high school students].Przegl Lek. 2004; 61(10):1156-60.PL
Survey in Krakow (2001) preceding implementing of the anti-nicotine program in elementary schools and gymnasiums was done in order to determine the frequency of smoking, attitudes towards smoking habit and smokers and the influence of family on developing these attitudes. In this survey questionnaire consisting of 32-41 questions (depending on the school type) on socio-demographic data and attitudes scale was used. Statistical analyses were done using chi2 test to evaluate significant relations between variables and multilevel logistic regression models to establish risk. Obtained results show, that in the recent years the number of pupils initiating smoking is not diminishing (13.8% of gymnasium pupils and 3.0% of elementary school pupils smoke and 19.3% and 8.2% smoked in the past, respectively). In majority pupils' attitude towards smoking was negative (89.2% in elementary schools and 74.5% in gymnasiums). However, attitudes towards smokers were more differentiated. Lack of defined attitude towards smokers presented 62.6% of elementary school pupils and only 32.4% of gymnasium pupils. Although smoking is not approved by majority of pupils, in particular gymnasium pupils are more tolerant towards smokers and more often have positive attitude towards smokers (25.8%) in comparison with their younger colleagues. The fact of lack of determined attitude towards smokers among 42.1% of gymnasium pupils and 30.3% of elementary school pupils is distressing. Odds ratio of lack of determined attitude towards smokers increases when at least one of parents smokes (OR=2.05) and also when older colleagues smoke and peers do not smoke (OR=24.5). It decreases for those, who were characterized by lack of acceptance for smoking (OR=0.172). Obtained results confirm the role of social environment (especially family) in developing of attitudes towards smokers among pupils. They also the presence of pupils together with psychosocial immaturity characteristic for process of development favors ambivalence of judgments and beliefs connected with this habit.