Increase in minimum inhibitory concentration to quinolones and ceftriaxone in salmonellae causing enteric fever.J Commun Dis. 2003 Sep; 35(3):162-9.JC
Multidrug resistance among Salmonella typhi is well known. Reports of treatment failure in enteric fever with Ciprofloxacin made us undertake this study to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of S. typhi and S. paratyphi A isolated from typhoid bacteremia cases, by disc diffusion and MIC by broth dilution method. A total of 50 strains were tested, 48 of Salmonella typhi and 2 of S. paratyphi A. The disc diffusion method was done using ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone as antibiotics. The MIC was performed using ciproloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone based on standard procedure. ACCOT resistance as determined by disc diffusion method was seen in 68% of isolates. All the strains remained susceptible to flouroquinolones cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The MIC of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone were in the recommended range of susceptibility as given by NCCLS, 14 (28%) strains had MIC of ciprofloxacin greater than 0.5 ug/ml with 4 strains having an MIC of 1.56 ug/ml; 25 (50%) strains had MIC of ofloxacin greater than 0.5 ug/ml and 20 (40%) strains had MIC of ceftriaxone greater than 0.5 ug/ml. The high levels of MIC of ciprofloxacin may account for treatment failure cases. The rising levels of MIC of ofloxacin and ceftriaxone in S. typhi and S. paratyphi is also of concern. We document here the emergence of high levels of MIC not only to ciprofloxacin, but also ofloxacin and ceftriaxone in S. typhi and S. paratyphi A. We recommend that MIC levels of ofloxacin and ceftriaxone should be monitored along with ciprofloxacin in treatment failure cases of enteric fever.