Comparison of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials of fresh and cooked Polish, Ukrainian, and Israeli garlic.J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 06; 53(7):2726-32.JA
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an essential part of Polish, Ukrainian, and Israeli cuisine. The aim of this investigation was to compare the changes in bioactive compounds, proteins, and antioxidant potentials in fresh Polish, Ukrainian, and Israeli garlic samples after subjection to cooking temperature. Dietary fiber and essential trace elements were comparable. The antioxidant potentials were determined by four scavenging methods using beta-carotene, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(*)(+)) radical cation with K(2)S(2)O(8) or MnO(2) assays. Polyphenols, tocopherols, proteins, and antioxidant potentials were higher in Polish garlic, but not significantly (P > 0.05). The SDS- and native-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of all three fresh garlic samples were without significant differences. Most of the proteins were in the molecular mass range of 24-97 kDa, and the more intensive major bands were concentrated at 50 and 12 kDa. The 50 kDa protein nearly disappears and the intensity of the 12 kDa lectin bands slightly decreases during cooking. It was observed that the bioactive compounds, antioxidant potential, and proteins in garlic decrease significantly after 20 min of cooking at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, (a) the bioactive compounds, electrophoretic patterns, and antioxidant potential of fresh Polish, Ukrainian, and Israeli garlic samples are comparable; (b) garlic samples subjected to 100 degrees C during 20 min preserve their bioactive compounds, antioxidant potential, and protein profile and are comparable with fresh garlic; and (c) fresh garlic should be added to dishes cooked at 100 degrees C in the last 20 min of the cooking process.