Association of low adiponectin levels with the metabolic syndrome--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-4).Metabolism 2005; 54(4):476-81M
The aim of the study was to assess the relation of adiponectin levels with the metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study was conducted on 100 (50 men and 50 women) type 2 diabetic subjects and 100 age and sex matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, an ongoing population study in Chennai in southern India. Metabolic syndrome was defined using modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) guidelines. Adiponectin values were significantly lower in diabetic subjects (men: 5.2 vs 8.3 microg/mL, P=.00l; women: 7.6 vs 11.1 microg/mL, P<.00l) and those with the metabolic syndrome (men: 5.0 vs 6.8 microg/mL, P=.01; women: 6.5 vs 9.9 microg/mL, P=.001) compared with those without. Linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin to be associated with body mass index (P<.05), waist circumference (P<.01), fasting plasma glucose (P=.001), glycated hemoglobin (P<.001), triglycerides (P<.00l), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<.001), cholesterol/HDL ratio (P<.00l), and insulin resistance measured by homeostasis assessment model (P<.00l). Factor analysis identified 2 factors: factor 1, negatively loaded with adiponectin and HDL cholesterol and positively loaded with triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin resistance measured by homeostasis assessment model; and factor 2, with a positive loading of waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Logistic regression analysis revealed adiponectin to be negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 0.365; P<.001) even after adjusting for age (OR, 0.344; P<.00l), sex (OR, 0.293; P<.001), and body mass index (OR, 0.292; P<.00l). Lower adiponectin levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome per se and several of its components, particularly, diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in this urban south Indian population.