Phylogeny and biogeography of Chinese sisorid catfishes re-examined using mitochondrial cytochrome b and 16S rRNA gene sequences.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005 May; 35(2):344-62.MP
The family Sisoridae is one of the largest and most diverse Asiatic catfish families, most species occurring in the water systems of the Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau and East Himalayas. To date published morphological and molecular phylogenetics hypotheses of sisorid catfishes are part congruent, and there are some areas of significant disagreement with respect to intergeneric relationships. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b and 16S rRNA gene sequences to clarify existing gaps in phylogenetics and to test conflicting vicariant and dispersal biogeographical hypotheses of Chinese sisorids using dispersal-vicariance analysis and weighted ancestral area analysis in combination with palaeogeographical data as well as molecular clock calibration. Our results suggest that: (1) Chinese sisorid catfishes form a monophyletic group with two distinct clades, one represented by (Gagata (Bagarius, Glyptothorax)) and the other by (glyptosternoids, Pseudecheneis); (2) the glyptosternoid is a monophyletic group and Glyptosternum, Glaridoglanis, and Exostoma are three basal species having a primitive position among it; (3) a hypothesis referring to Pseudecheneis as the sister group of the glyptosternoids, based on morphological evidence, is supported; (4) the genus Pareuchiloglanis, as presently defined, is not monophyletic; (5) congruent with previous hypotheses, the uplift of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau played a primary role in the speciation and radiation of the Chinese sisorids; and (6) an evolutionary scenario combining aspects of both vicariance and dispersal theory is necessary to explain the distribution pattern of the glyptosternoids. In addition, using a cytochrome b substitution rate of 0.91% per million years and 0.23% for 16S rRNA, we tentatively date that the glyptosternoids most possibly originated in Oligocene-Miocene boundary (19-24Myr), and radiated from Miocene to Pleistocene, along with a center of origin in the Irrawaddy-Tsangpo drainages and several rapid speciation in a relatively short time.