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Affect-modulated startle in adults with childhood-onset depression: relations to bipolar course and number of lifetime depressive episodes.
Psychiatry Res. 2005 Mar 30; 134(1):11-25.PR

Abstract

To study affect regulation in adults with unipolar (n=38) and bipolar (n=38) forms of childhood-onset depression (COD), as compared with adults with no history of psychiatric illness (n=60), we examined affective modulation of the startle eyeblink reflex. Participants were subjected to binaural bursts of white noise while viewing pictures designed to elicit pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant affective states. The blink response was recorded from surface electrodes over the orbicularis oculi muscle during and following pictures. Participants rated the valence and arousal of their responses. Unlike control or bipolar groups, the unipolar group displayed a greater startle during the neutral condition than during the pleasant condition, and failed to display an increase in startle during the unpleasant condition. The bipolar group, unlike the unipolar and control groups, displayed a similar startle response after pleasant and unpleasant pictures. Participants with a high number of lifetime depressive episodes displayed a blunted startle response across affective conditions. Groups reported similar subjective responses to affective stimuli. Current affective symptoms and comorbid diagnoses did not influence startle modulation. In unipolar and bipolar forms of COD, unusual affective modulation or maintenance of the startle response, respectively, may reflect underlying deficits in affect regulation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 210 South Bouquet Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. forbese@msx.upmc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15808286

Citation

Forbes, Erika E., et al. "Affect-modulated Startle in Adults With Childhood-onset Depression: Relations to Bipolar Course and Number of Lifetime Depressive Episodes." Psychiatry Research, vol. 134, no. 1, 2005, pp. 11-25.
Forbes EE, Miller A, Cohn JF, et al. Affect-modulated startle in adults with childhood-onset depression: relations to bipolar course and number of lifetime depressive episodes. Psychiatry Res. 2005;134(1):11-25.
Forbes, E. E., Miller, A., Cohn, J. F., Fox, N. A., & Kovacs, M. (2005). Affect-modulated startle in adults with childhood-onset depression: relations to bipolar course and number of lifetime depressive episodes. Psychiatry Research, 134(1), 11-25.
Forbes EE, et al. Affect-modulated Startle in Adults With Childhood-onset Depression: Relations to Bipolar Course and Number of Lifetime Depressive Episodes. Psychiatry Res. 2005 Mar 30;134(1):11-25. PubMed PMID: 15808286.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Affect-modulated startle in adults with childhood-onset depression: relations to bipolar course and number of lifetime depressive episodes. AU - Forbes,Erika E, AU - Miller,Anita, AU - Cohn,Jeffrey F, AU - Fox,Nathan A, AU - Kovacs,Maria, PY - 2004/08/16/received PY - 2004/11/03/revised PY - 2005/01/07/accepted PY - 2005/4/6/pubmed PY - 2005/9/10/medline PY - 2005/4/6/entrez SP - 11 EP - 25 JF - Psychiatry research JO - Psychiatry Res VL - 134 IS - 1 N2 - To study affect regulation in adults with unipolar (n=38) and bipolar (n=38) forms of childhood-onset depression (COD), as compared with adults with no history of psychiatric illness (n=60), we examined affective modulation of the startle eyeblink reflex. Participants were subjected to binaural bursts of white noise while viewing pictures designed to elicit pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant affective states. The blink response was recorded from surface electrodes over the orbicularis oculi muscle during and following pictures. Participants rated the valence and arousal of their responses. Unlike control or bipolar groups, the unipolar group displayed a greater startle during the neutral condition than during the pleasant condition, and failed to display an increase in startle during the unpleasant condition. The bipolar group, unlike the unipolar and control groups, displayed a similar startle response after pleasant and unpleasant pictures. Participants with a high number of lifetime depressive episodes displayed a blunted startle response across affective conditions. Groups reported similar subjective responses to affective stimuli. Current affective symptoms and comorbid diagnoses did not influence startle modulation. In unipolar and bipolar forms of COD, unusual affective modulation or maintenance of the startle response, respectively, may reflect underlying deficits in affect regulation. SN - 0165-1781 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15808286/Affect_modulated_startle_in_adults_with_childhood_onset_depression:_relations_to_bipolar_course_and_number_of_lifetime_depressive_episodes_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -