Copper regulation and homeostasis of Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: influence of acclimation.Environ Pollut. 2005 Jul; 136(1):135-44.EP
This study aimed to evaluate (1) the capacity of the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the waterflea Daphnia magna to regulate copper when exposed to environmentally realistic copper concentrations and (2) the influence of multi-generation acclimation to these copper concentrations on copper bioaccumulation and homeostasis. Based on bioconcentration factors, active copper regulation was observed in algae up to 5 microg Cu L(-1) and in daphnids up to 35 mug Cu L(-1). Constant body copper concentrations (13+/-4 microg Cu g DW(-1)) were observed in algae exposed to 1 through 5 microg Cu L(-1) and in daphnids exposed to 1 through 12 microg Cu L(-1). At higher exposure concentrations, there was an increase in internal body copper concentration, while no increase was observed in bioconcentration factors, suggesting the presence of a storage mechanism. At copper concentrations of 100 microg Cu L(-1) (P. subcapitata) and 150 microg Cu L(-1) (D. magna), the significant increases observed in body copper concentrations and in bioconcentration factors may be related to a failure of this regulation mechanism. For both organisms, internal body copper concentrations lower than 13 microg Cu g DW(-1) may result in copper deficiency. For P. subcapitata acclimated to 0.5 and 100 microg Cu L(-1), body copper concentrations ranged (mean+/-standard deviation) between 5+/-2 microg Cu g DW(-1) and 1300+/-197 microg Cu g DW(-1), respectively. For D. magna, this value ranged between 9+/-2 microg Cu g DW(-1) and 175+/-17 microg Cu g DW(-1) for daphnids acclimated to 0.5 and 150 microg Cu L(-1). Multi-generation acclimation to copper concentrations >or =12 microg Cu L(-1) resulted in a decrease (up to 40%) in body copper concentrations for both organisms compared to the body copper concentration of the first generation. It can be concluded that there is an indication that P. subcapitata and D. magna can regulate their whole body copper concentration to maintain copper homeostasis within their optimal copper range and acclimation enhances these mechanisms.