Comparative efficacy and safety evaluation of cefaclor vs amoxycillin + clavulanate in children with Acute Otitis Media (AOM).Indian J Pediatr. 2005 Mar; 72(3):233-8.IJ
Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is the most frequent respiratory tract infection of infancy and childhood that is treated with antimicrobial agents. The most common causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae and Moxarella catarrhalis, and therefore antibacterial management should target against these isolates. Cefaclor, a congener of cephalexin monohydrate, is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic. It is an orally active cephalosporin which has demonstrated activity against a wide range of organisms in vitro. Present study is designed as a multicentric prospective trial to study and compare the efficacy and safety of cefaclor versus amoxicillin + clav in children with acute otitis media. One hundred and sixty seven patients were evaluated for efficacy endpoints in the cefaclor arm comprised of 104 males and 63 females with a mean age of 5.74+/-2.80 years and 185 patients in the amoxy-clav group comprised of 118 males and 67 females with a mean age of 4.93+/-2.92 years. Both cefaclor and amoxy-clav caused a significant improvement in all the signs and symptoms after a 10-day treatment period. However, between-the-group comparisons showed that the reduction in most of the symptoms was significantly more in cefaclor arm as compared to amoxicillin-clav arm. The clinical success (clinical cure + improvement) at the end of therapy was significantly more in cefaclor arm: 98% with cefaclor versus 85% with amoxicillin + clav, p<0.05 Table 3. Failure cases were prescribed other antibiotics according to the culture sensitivity reports, as rescue medication. Bacterial eradication rates were largely consistent with clinical responses. Bacteriological eradication was seen in 95% of patients in cefaclor group and 78% of patients in amoxicillin + clav group. In conclusion, cefaclor is a well tolerated and effective antibacterial option for acute otitis media in children and it is superior to the combination of amoxicillin + clav in efficacy and tolerability in acute AOM. Moreover, its expanded spectrum of activity, ability to achieve adequate concentrations in tissues, suitability for twice-daily dosing, and proven tolerability suggest that it is a good alternative to agents traditionally used in acute otitis media.