[Electroencephalography in status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) in various clinical pictures].Acta Med Croatica. 2005; 59(1):69-74.AM
Electroencephalographic epileptic status during sleep (ESES--according to Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep) is characterized with paroxysmal attacks of 1.5-3.5 (even to 5) Hz/s spikes and waves during NREM. A case is presented of a 7-year-old boy who had normal development until 3 years of age when epileptic attacks started. First to appear were left-sided, hemifacial twitches with orofacio-lingual deficits. Despite treatment with various types and combinations of antiepileptic medications, the attacks persisted and became more frequent. About a year after the onset of the disease, the spectrum of epileptic attacks had expanded (left-sided tonic-clonic, atonic-astatic, myoclonic, atypical absences, and then drop attacks and negative myoclonic seizures became dominant). The boy appeared mentally retarded. During the course of the disease, the diagnoses varied: hemifacial twitches, partial epilepsy, left-sided partial epilepsy, atypical benign epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy. A year and a half after the onset of the disease EEG (polysomnographic whole-night recording) revealed electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) with spike-wave index > 85%. It appeared that this was continuous spike and wave during slow wave sleep syndrome (CSWS) with characteristic attacks, bifrontal atrophies on brain CT and right frontotemporal EEG focus. Treatment with valproate and ethosuximide combined with vigabatrin and clonazepam seemed to be effective. In the last 20 months ESES is rare and transitory, mental and neuropsychological functions have improved, but he still has several hemifacial twitches daily. The two brain MRI scans were normal. Differential diagnosis can be atypical benign epilepsy (suspected familial diagnosis). Family history of atopy, 'persistent' colds and obstructive bronchitis in the boy and treatment with antiepileptic medications (especially carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) could have been provoking or modulating factors of the epileptic disease. So far we have not identified an epileptic syndrome because it seems that multiple clinical pictures overlap. ESES could be diagnosed using polysomnographic whole-night recording with calculated spike-wave index. Follow-up of the spike-wave index could be useful in differentiation, but not in precise diagnosis of epileptic syndrome. Clinical course could be modulated by different factors. Continuous following over a long period could be helpful in the classification of epilepsy.