Detection of prion protein using a capillary electrophoresis-based competitive immunoassay with laser-induced fluorescence detection and cyclodextrin-aided separation.Electrophoresis. 2005 May; 26(9):1751-9.E
The development of capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based competitive immunoassay for prion protein (PrP) using carboxymethyl beta-cyclodextrin (CM-beta-CD) as a buffer additive is described here. The assay was based on the competitive binding of PrP and a fluorescein-labeled peptide from the prion protein with a limiting amount of specific antibody. The amount of both free and fluorescein-labeled peptide bound to antibody (immunocomplex) were determined by CE with laser-induced fluorescence detection. In the presence of PrP, the peak height ratio of the immunocomplex and the free peptide was altered compared to the control. These changes were directly proportional to the amount of PrP present. The fluorescently labeled peptide spanning amino acid positions 140-158 of the PrP and its corresponding monoclonal antibody is reported here. The reaction times of the antibody with either the peptide or the recombinant PrP was less than 1 min and is a large improvement over the 16-18 h required to achieve equilibrium for polyclonal antibodies. CM-beta-CD was explored as a buffer additive to suppress analyte adsorption and enhance separation selectivity in the CE analysis. A fast (1.1 min), selective (resolution 4.7), and reproducible (relative standard deviations of migration time for free and bound fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-peptide 0.56% and 0.64%, respectively) separation was obtained with 0.6% CM-beta-CD in 25 mM N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (TAPS) at pH 8.8. The concentration detection limit of the assay for recombinant PrP was determined to be 80 ng/mL (or mass detection limit 1 pg). When blood samples from scrapie-infected sheep and from normal sheep were tested, the results of the blood assay were consistent with scrapie status of the sheep as determined post mortem by Western blot analysis. Development of this assay will lead to a potentially robust, rapid, and specific preclinical diagnosis for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in animals and humans.