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Iron, zinc, and alcohol consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases: the Iowa Women's Health Study.
Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81(4):787-91AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The relation between iron status and atherosclerosis has long been a topic of debate.

OBJECTIVE

We examined associations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with dietary intakes of iron (a possible prooxidant), zinc (a possible antioxidant), and alcohol (a disruptor of iron homeostasis).

DESIGN

Postmenopausal women (n = 34 492) aged 55-69 y at baseline, who completed a food-frequency questionnaire, were followed for CVD mortality over 15 y.

RESULTS

Among women who consumed >/=10 g alcohol/d, after adjustment for CVD risk factors in a model that contained dietary heme iron, nonheme iron, and zinc intakes, dietary heme iron showed a positive association, dietary nonheme iron showed a U-shaped association, and dietary zinc showed an inverse association with CVD mortality. For example, the relative risks (RRs) for categories of dietary heme iron were 1.0, 1.46, 1.52, 1.73, and 2.47 (P for trend = 0.04); corresponding RRs for dietary nonheme iron were 1.0, 0.93, 0.63, 0.83, and 1.20 (P for quadratic term = 0.02). The corresponding RRs for dietary zinc were 1.0, 0.61, 0.59, 0.57, and 0.37 (P for trend = 0.07). In an analysis restricted to those who consumed >/=30 g alcohol/d, the risk gradients strengthened.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results suggest that a higher intake of heme iron might be harmful, whereas a higher intake of zinc might be beneficial in relation to CVD mortality in the presence of a trigger that can disturb iron homeostasis, such as alcohol consumption.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15817853

Citation

Lee, Duk-Hee, et al. "Iron, Zinc, and Alcohol Consumption and Mortality From Cardiovascular Diseases: the Iowa Women's Health Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 4, 2005, pp. 787-91.
Lee DH, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR. Iron, zinc, and alcohol consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(4):787-91.
Lee, D. H., Folsom, A. R., & Jacobs, D. R. (2005). Iron, zinc, and alcohol consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases: the Iowa Women's Health Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(4), pp. 787-91.
Lee DH, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR. Iron, Zinc, and Alcohol Consumption and Mortality From Cardiovascular Diseases: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(4):787-91. PubMed PMID: 15817853.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron, zinc, and alcohol consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases: the Iowa Women's Health Study. AU - Lee,Duk-Hee, AU - Folsom,Aaron R, AU - Jacobs,David R,Jr PY - 2005/4/9/pubmed PY - 2005/5/4/medline PY - 2005/4/9/entrez SP - 787 EP - 91 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 81 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The relation between iron status and atherosclerosis has long been a topic of debate. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with dietary intakes of iron (a possible prooxidant), zinc (a possible antioxidant), and alcohol (a disruptor of iron homeostasis). DESIGN: Postmenopausal women (n = 34 492) aged 55-69 y at baseline, who completed a food-frequency questionnaire, were followed for CVD mortality over 15 y. RESULTS: Among women who consumed >/=10 g alcohol/d, after adjustment for CVD risk factors in a model that contained dietary heme iron, nonheme iron, and zinc intakes, dietary heme iron showed a positive association, dietary nonheme iron showed a U-shaped association, and dietary zinc showed an inverse association with CVD mortality. For example, the relative risks (RRs) for categories of dietary heme iron were 1.0, 1.46, 1.52, 1.73, and 2.47 (P for trend = 0.04); corresponding RRs for dietary nonheme iron were 1.0, 0.93, 0.63, 0.83, and 1.20 (P for quadratic term = 0.02). The corresponding RRs for dietary zinc were 1.0, 0.61, 0.59, 0.57, and 0.37 (P for trend = 0.07). In an analysis restricted to those who consumed >/=30 g alcohol/d, the risk gradients strengthened. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a higher intake of heme iron might be harmful, whereas a higher intake of zinc might be beneficial in relation to CVD mortality in the presence of a trigger that can disturb iron homeostasis, such as alcohol consumption. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15817853/Iron_zinc_and_alcohol_consumption_and_mortality_from_cardiovascular_diseases:_the_Iowa_Women's_Health_Study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/81.4.787 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -