The efficacy of dietary intervention on urinary risk factors for stone formation in recurrent calcium oxalate stone patients.J Urol 2005; 173(5):1601-5JU
Nutrition is suggested to be the major environmental risk factor in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention on urinary risk factors for recurrence in calcium oxalate stone formers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A total of 76 men and 31 women with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease collected 24-hour urine on their habitual, self-selected diets and after 7 days on a balanced standardized diet according to the recommendations for calcium oxalate stone formers.
On the usual diet, a urine volume of less than 2.0 l per 24 hours was present in 57.9%, hypercalciuria in 25.2%, hypomagnesuria in 18.7%, hyperoxaluria in 14.0%, hyperuricosuria in 41.3% and hypocitraturia in 57.0% of patients. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities and the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation decreased significantly on the ingestion of the balanced diet, due to the significant increase in urinary volume, pH and citrate excretion and the significant decrease in urinary calcium and uric acid excretion. No change occurred in urinary oxalate and magnesium excretion.
The evaluation of urinary risk profiles of the patients on their usual dietary habits revealed a high risk for calcium oxalate stone formation. A low fluid intake and an increased intake of protein and alcohol were identified as the most important dietary risk factors. The shift to a nutritionally balanced diet according to the recommendations for calcium oxalate stone formers significantly reduced the stone forming potential.