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Origins of the "black/white" difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study.
Circulation 2005; 111(15):1932-7Circ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The determinants of differences in blood pressure that emerge in adolescence between black Americans of predominantly African descent and white Americans of predominantly European descent are unknown. One hypothesis is related to intrauterine and early childhood growth. The role of early blood pressure itself is also unclear. We tested whether differences in birth weight and in carefully standardized subsequent measures of weight, height, and blood pressure from 0 to 4 or 5 years were related to black/white differences in blood pressure in adolescence.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Two Bogalusa cohorts who had complete follow-up data on birth weights and early childhood and adolescent anthropometric and blood pressure measures were pooled. One hundred eighty-five children (48 black and 47 white boys and 41 black and 49 white girls) were followed up and studied after 15 to 17 years. Birth weights were a mean 443 and 282 g lower in black boys and girls, respectively, than in whites (P<0.001). Blood pressures in adolescence were 3.4/1.9 and 1.7/0.6 mm Hg higher, respectively, and tracked from early childhood. In regression analyses, birth weight accounted for the ethnic difference in adolescent blood pressure, which was also independently predicted, in decreasing impact order, by adolescent height, adolescent body mass index, and systolic blood pressure at 4 to 5 years and inversely by growth from 0 to 4 to 5 years.

CONCLUSIONS

If these results can be replicated in larger and independent samples, they suggest that efforts to improve intrauterine growth in black infants as well as lessen weight gain in adolescence might substantially reduce excess high blood pressure/hypertension in this ethnic group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tulane Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University Medical Center School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA, USA. clinep@man.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15837946

Citation

Cruickshank, J K., et al. "Origins of the "black/white" Difference in Blood Pressure: Roles of Birth Weight, Postnatal Growth, Early Blood Pressure, and Adolescent Body Size: the Bogalusa Heart Study." Circulation, vol. 111, no. 15, 2005, pp. 1932-7.
Cruickshank JK, Mzayek F, Liu L, et al. Origins of the "black/white" difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation. 2005;111(15):1932-7.
Cruickshank, J. K., Mzayek, F., Liu, L., Kieltyka, L., Sherwin, R., Webber, L. S., ... Berenson, G. S. (2005). Origins of the "black/white" difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation, 111(15), pp. 1932-7.
Cruickshank JK, et al. Origins of the "black/white" Difference in Blood Pressure: Roles of Birth Weight, Postnatal Growth, Early Blood Pressure, and Adolescent Body Size: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Circulation. 2005 Apr 19;111(15):1932-7. PubMed PMID: 15837946.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Origins of the "black/white" difference in blood pressure: roles of birth weight, postnatal growth, early blood pressure, and adolescent body size: the Bogalusa heart study. AU - Cruickshank,J K, AU - Mzayek,F, AU - Liu,L, AU - Kieltyka,L, AU - Sherwin,R, AU - Webber,L S, AU - Srinavasan,S R, AU - Berenson,G S, PY - 2005/4/20/pubmed PY - 2005/11/16/medline PY - 2005/4/20/entrez SP - 1932 EP - 7 JF - Circulation JO - Circulation VL - 111 IS - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: The determinants of differences in blood pressure that emerge in adolescence between black Americans of predominantly African descent and white Americans of predominantly European descent are unknown. One hypothesis is related to intrauterine and early childhood growth. The role of early blood pressure itself is also unclear. We tested whether differences in birth weight and in carefully standardized subsequent measures of weight, height, and blood pressure from 0 to 4 or 5 years were related to black/white differences in blood pressure in adolescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two Bogalusa cohorts who had complete follow-up data on birth weights and early childhood and adolescent anthropometric and blood pressure measures were pooled. One hundred eighty-five children (48 black and 47 white boys and 41 black and 49 white girls) were followed up and studied after 15 to 17 years. Birth weights were a mean 443 and 282 g lower in black boys and girls, respectively, than in whites (P<0.001). Blood pressures in adolescence were 3.4/1.9 and 1.7/0.6 mm Hg higher, respectively, and tracked from early childhood. In regression analyses, birth weight accounted for the ethnic difference in adolescent blood pressure, which was also independently predicted, in decreasing impact order, by adolescent height, adolescent body mass index, and systolic blood pressure at 4 to 5 years and inversely by growth from 0 to 4 to 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: If these results can be replicated in larger and independent samples, they suggest that efforts to improve intrauterine growth in black infants as well as lessen weight gain in adolescence might substantially reduce excess high blood pressure/hypertension in this ethnic group. SN - 1524-4539 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15837946/Origins_of_the_"black/white"_difference_in_blood_pressure:_roles_of_birth_weight_postnatal_growth_early_blood_pressure_and_adolescent_body_size:_the_Bogalusa_heart_study_ L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.CIR.0000161960.78745.33?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -