Study of the viral infections and cytokines associated with recurrent aphthous ulceration.Microbes Infect. 2005 Apr; 7(4):635-44.MI
Mouth ulcers are one of the most common oral complaints. However, the association between oral ulceration and viruses and cytokines is uncertain. We detected the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2 and human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 DNA in oral tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization techniques, and quantified the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), soluble Fas (sFas) and the Fas ligand (FasL) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 67 recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) patients and 72 normal individuals. Seven patient specimens were excluded from the study due to the negative PCR results for the beta-globin used as the internal control. Among the 32 (53.3%) virus-positive results from 60 patients' samples, 8 (13.3%) HPV, 4 (6.7%) HSV-1, 11 (18.3%) CMV, 9 (15.0%) EBV, and 16 (26.7%) HHV-8 samples proved to be positive. No HSV-2-positive samples were found. The percentage of single-virus infection (56.3%) was significantly greater than that of double-virus co-infection (31.3%) and the percentage of double-virus co-infection was significantly greater than the percentage of triple-virus co-infection (12.5%) (P < 0.05). In the 72 normal oral-tissue specimens, no viral DNA was detected. The mean serum cytokine level for patients was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than for controls for most of the separate age groups. The mean serum cytokine concentrations for the patient group demonstrated a diffuse pattern covering a wide range of serum concentrations, a very different result from the compact serum concentration pattern and lower mean serum cytokine concentrations revealed by the normal group. Overall association between viruses and recurrent aphthous ulceration is HHV-8 > CMV > EBV > HPV > HSV-1, regarding the frequency of prevalence (P < 0.05).